Latest updates

Deictic31 January 2014

Words that point in various directions, within a text and beyond it. For example, ‘down there’, ‘this’, ‘that’ etc. Deictic expressions may also point in time, as in ‘now’, ‘then’,... more

Stereotyping31 January 2014

Assigning fixed characteristics to individuals on the basis of their group membership (e.g. ethnicity, nationality, gender etc.). more

Denotation31 January 2014

This is the literal, factual meaning of a word. Often it is the meaning or the initial meaning given in a dictionary. Compare with connotation. more

Ellipsis31 January 2014

The omission of part of a language structure. In conversation, ellipsis is frequently used for economy and to affirm a sense of informality. For example, in the exchange Coming? Soon. more

Function31 January 2014

What language is used for. Often, students discuss the purpose or purposes of a text. Function is simply a synonym, and is frequently the word used within the discipline of linguistics. more

Graphology31 January 2014

The visual aspect of a text, including layout, font, and image. In the study of English Language and Literature, students are, in Paper 1 in particular, expected to comment meaningfully of the graphological... more

Intertextuality31 January 2014

The ways in which a text resonates or refers to another text. For example, ‘to be a subscriber to the InThinking website or not to be a subscriber to the InThinking website is an (admittedly not particularly... more

Phonlogical31 January 2014

Relates to the sound system of a language. A phoneme is a single unit of sound. Phonological substitution, replacing an anticipated sound with an unanticipated sound is commonplace in media texts such... more

Paralanguage31 January 2014

Aspects of communication functioning in conjunction with verbal language. For example, facial expression and body posture. more

Noun Phrase31 January 2014

A word or group of words with a noun at its head (i.e. the noun is the essential word), often with added information in the form of modifiers. Premodifiers precede the head, and post-modifiers follow... more