The Role of International Organisations, Governments and NGOs
The following page provides resources for three to four lessons on the role of international organisations, NGOs and different national governments in combattng food insecurity and disease. It uses a variety of in-depth resources, fact sheets, educational videos and exemplary material to examine the different roles. It addresses the interchanging and complex role of these different stakeholders and specifically examines the role of the EU and US.
Lesson Time: 3-4 Hours
- To critically examine the roles of international governments, NGOs and National Governments in influencing and affecting diets and health
- To specifically examine the roles of the UN, WFP, FAO and WHO
- To specifically examine the roles of and issues in the USA and the EU
Starter Activity - Power and Possibilities -The Map of Aid Players
Study the PDF below showing the map of global aid players.
- From the map identify the main stakeholders who have an influence on health and food security in terms of humanitarian aid.
- What linkages do you think exist between them?
Student Activity-Processes and Possibilities -The Role of the UN
- How well do you know the Sustainable Development Goals?
- Which of the goals relate to diets and health?
Student Task - Possibilities - What's the Role of the UN SDGs?
Read the following text adapted from the online article by Nadia Kähkönen for Triple Pundit
- Identify the differences between the SDGs and the MDGs
- State how the SDGs will inform the policies and approaches of different interest groups including:
- Service providers
Student Activity - Processes - Types of Food Aid
Read the following information and complete the gap fill on your worksheet
Program : subsidized deliveries of food to a central government that subsequently sells the food and uses the proceeds for whatever purpose (not necessarily food assistance). Program food aid provides budgetary and balance of payments relief for recipient governments.
Project : provides support to field-based projects in areas of chronic need through deliveries of food (usually free) to a government or NGO that either uses it directly (e.g., Food For Work, MCH, school feeding) or monetizes it, using the proceeds for project activities. Increasingly cash-voucher schemes are being used by NGOs.
Emergency/Humanitarian: deliveries of free food to GO/NGO agencies responding to crisis due to natural disaster or conflict.
Student Activity _Synthesis_The Role of the World Food Program (WFP)
Read the following statement from the WFP website and identify how they see their role in alleviating hunger
In more than half a century of humanitarian engagement, we have learned that fighting hunger is not a straightforward proposition. It requires collective action on various levels, aimed at various groups, drawing on various contexts and including various stakeholders. We have learned that fighting hunger involves not just delivering food, but also transferring cash; not just transferring cash, but transferring knowledge; not knowledge in a void, but knowledge that makes local sense; and not just knowledge we own, but knowledge derived from conversations of equals.
The diversity of national settings, the gradations of peace and conflict, a changing climate and the complexity of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development all dictate that the World Food Programme (WFP)’s offer must be subtly calibrated, made up of an expanding range of tools and approaches. Used singly or in combination, always tailored and never identical, these tools and approaches express our current thinking about the best way to achieve Zero Hunger.
Student Activity _Places and Possibilities_The Main Focus of the WFP
- Using the worksheet provided identify for each focus area of the WFP one link to diets and one link to health.
- Using the the WFP factsheet on Kenya identify the way the WFP is supporting the following groups:
- The National Capacity
Student Activity_Processes and Synthesis_Nutrition Analysis by the WFP
One of the ways of assessing the fight against hunger is monitoring global food aid flows. New indicators are now available to better understand the nutritional content of these flows
Study the graph below based on the nutritional content of food aid into Ethiopia and explain how this measurement improves diets in developing countries
Source: WFP - IRMA Analysis (IRMA - Individual Requirements Met on Average)
Student Activity - Processes -The Role of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)
Watch the following clip from the FAO and identify:
- Some key areas that the FAO work on
- A single sentence that you think sums up the FAO work
Student Activity _Places and Processes_ The FAO Supporting Street Vendors in Accra, Ghana
Introduce the example with the following clip from the FAO and students should identify:
- Which group in Ghanaian society are street vendors
- The main challenges that they face
Student Activity - Power and Possibilities - Women's Business
Read the following extract from the FAO and identify:
- Why street vending is a growing economic opportunity
- The role of the FAO in supporting hygiene and nutrition among street vendors
Extract from the FAO on street vending in Accra, Ghana
Student Activity - Processes - Making an Infographic for the World Health Organization (WHO)
- The WHO mission
- The main focus areas of work
- It's links to the SDGs
- A map of where they work
- An example of a health based project
Click on the logo to go to the Piktochart help page for support. Piktochart requires you to log in and to create an account.
Student Activities - Scale and Processes - The Role of Governments in Humanitarian Aid
1. Using the gallery below on EU humanitarian aid answer the questions on the worksheet provided
2. Read the following text that explains the EU's Food Assistance Toolbox and identify the different ways the EU supports diets
Student Activity - Scale and Processes - The EU and Cash-Voucher Schemes
Watch the following clip based on the EU's use of cash and vouchers for health and diet benefits. Make notes on:
- How money is transferred to people
- The benefits of this type of transfer
Student Activity- Scale and Processes - USAID
Using the PDF worksheet answer the questions based in the graphics
Student Activity - Processes and Possibilities - Is US Food Aid Impacting Malnutrition?
Watch the clip (from 06.30) from Rhiz Khan and answer the questions on the sheet provided
Now read the following FP The Great American Food Aid Boondoggle
Student Activity - Synthesis - Food Issues and Diets in the EU
Study the following gallery and identify the food and health issues relating to diets in the EU
For each image discuss the role of national governments as well as the EU in
Student Activity - Synthesis and Possibilities - Types of Government Health Care Systems
Watch the Youtube clip that explains Obamacare in the USA
Read the handout on types of government health care systems and discuss which type of health care system the USA follows.
Student Assessment - Exam Questions Planning
Students should prepare at least 2 detailed plans for the following questions. Use the planning sheets to support the task
- Compare the work of the FAO and the WFP in alleviating hunger (6)
- Discuss the relative importance of different stakeholders in influencing diets (10)
- Explain the role of one international organization in its efforts to combat disease (6)
- Discuss the role of governments in terms of improving diets (10)