Sample Paper 1 - Geophysical Hazards

Model Exams for Geophysical Hazards

The following page has 4 model papers that can be used as end of unit tests and/or mock exams. They feature authentic exam material and detailed mark schemes for use in class as follow-up or in teaching students on assessment. In addition there are sample feedback approaches provided. The exam material is only for the themes resourced in the site.

 

Geophysical Hazards  1

Markscheme and Feedback

1. (a) With reference to the photograph suggest evidence of a recent geophysical hazard   [2]       

  • In the background, a volcano shows signs of a recent eruption. There is evidence of ash or pyroclastic flow down its flank (1)
  • The house is badly damaged, tiles are off the roof, perhaps caused by a pyroclastic blast (1)
  • The trees are covered in ash and also have limited vegetation on them caused by the possible pyroclastic blast (1)

(b) Suggest reasons why the local villagers of Mount Sinabung may not quickly recover   [2+2]   

Award (1) for suitable reason e.g. lack of development in the area (1) out migration (1) Award(1) for developing the answer, e.g.low income households will have little financial resilience to recover (1), people may prefer to stay away permanently leading to a collapse of the local economy (1)

(c) Explain two secondary hazards associated with volcanic eruptions   [2+2]     

Award (1) for suitable secondary hazard e.g. lahar (1) collapsing roofs from ashfall (1) Award(1) for developing the answer, e.g.deep ashfall combined with heavy rainfall triggered by the ash can cause dangerous fast moving mudflows  (1), the weight of ash on poor quality roofs can collapse causing fatalities (1)

2. (a) Explain the forces that cause plate movement and the resulting volcanic activity [10]

AO1 - Applied Knowledge and AO2 - Knowledge and Understanding

The essay should develop detailed knowledge and understanding of the processes that cause plate movement and different processes creating volcanic activity

Plate Movement

The essay should develop an understanding of heat transfers in the mantle and the presence of convection cells and mantle plumes. Plate movement is driven by the processes of slab pull at subduction zones and ridge push at divergent plate boundaries. Frictional drag by convection may also be a factor developed.

Resulting Volcanic Activity

The essay may develop divergent and convergent boundaries. At divergent plate boundaries ocean floor spreading and rifting occurs leading to a fall in pressure in the mantle and rising magma. At convergent boundaries subduction occurs, leading to a partial melting of the mantle wedge due to saturated oceanic crust entering the mantle. Part of the crust melts too, causing magma to rise upwards through the crust.

Divergent boundaries create basaltic flow, which have low viscosity and convergent boundaries create more andesitic magma, which has high viscosity and high explosivity

Student may develop hotspots focused on the fixed positioning of mantle plumes.

Accurate diagrams may support this essay

AO3 - Synthesis and Evaluation  - Synthesis required in how these processes interlink

AO4 - Selection, application and use of appropriate skills - Clear explanation. Well drawn diagrams may support

For 5–6 marks

Expect a weakly evidenced range of processes to explain movement and volcanic activity

For 7–8 marks

Expect a well-structured account, which includes:

either well-evidenced range of processes to explain plate movement and volcanic activity (lacking in balance) or a discursive conclusion grounded in geographical concepts and perspectives

For 9–10 marks

Expect both of these traits.

2. (b) Discuss the causes of seismic activity and the resulting associated hazards [10]

AO1 - Applied Knowledge and AO2 - Knowledge and Understanding

The essay should develop detailed knowledge and understanding of the causes of seismic activity and their associated primary and secondary hazards. Seismic activity should be well defined and the essay may develop different types of seismic waves linked to the hazards they pose.

Seismic activity should be linked to the storage and release of stress in faults. Types of stress are linked to plate movement and type of fault.

Seismic activity produces a range of primary hazards, including shaking and rolling ground and cracking and collapsing of the surface.

Seismic activity produces a wide range of secondary hazards, including collapsing buildings, landslides, fires, tsunamis and  and liquefaction

Accept well drawn labelled/annotated diagrams as part of the response

AO3 - Synthesis and Evaluation  - Synthesis required in how these processes interlink

AO4 - Selection, application and use of appropriate skills - Clear explanation of processes. Well drawn diagrams may support

For 5–6 marks

Expect a weakly evidenced range of causes of seismic activity and associated hazards

For 7–8 marks

Expect a well-structured account, which includes:

either well-evidenced range of causes of seismic activity and associated hazards (lacking in balance) or a discursive conclusion grounded in geographical concepts and perspectives

For 9–10 marks

Expect both of these traits.

Geophysical Hazards  2

Markscheme and Feedback

1. (a) Briefly describe the pattern of landslide risk shown in the map

  • There appears to be two distinct linear patterns of greater landslide risk running in NW to SE direction, parallel to the coast  (1)
  • Greater landslide risk appears to increase with proximity to roads, e.g. road 101 (1)
  • Award (1) mark for either of the following, landslide risk appears to be greatest to the northwest of the map, south of the 101 and north of Santa Cruz   
  • There is a linear pattern of no landslide risk running in the center of the map parallel to the coast (1)

(b) With reference to the map suggest reasons for the variation in landslide risk  [2+2]

Award (1) for a suitable reason e.g. following fault lines (1) steep slopes next roads(1) areas of flat relief (1) Award(1) for developing the answer, e.g.seismic waves are likely to be strongest along the faults leading to greater landslide risks  (1), steep slopes are made unstable by roads that undercut their supporting base (1) flat relief is not subject to landslide risk (1)

(c) Suggest two different causes of earthquakes  [2+2] 

Award (1) for suitable cause e.g. release of stored stress (1) human activity e.g. fracking (1) Award(1) for developing the answer, e.g.when faults become overloaded with stored stress due to plate movement they release it as seismic waves  (1), fracking involves the injection removal of gas from shale rock and injection of fluids that loads stress into faults (1)    

2. (a)  Compare the hazard profiles and impacts of two contrasting mass movements hazards [10]

AO1 - Applied Knowledge and AO2 - Knowledge and Understanding

The essay should develop detailed knowledge and understanding of hazard profiles and their characteristics.

Clear case study knowledge  of the hazards linked to profiles should be developed. Chosen mass movements should be contrasting in their nature and location

Impacts are likely to be based around a geographical framework, such as social , economic, environmental and/or short term long term

AO3 - Synthesis and Evaluation  - Synthesis required in terms links between profiles and impacts. Clear contrasts should be evidenced throughout the response

AO4 - Selection, application and use of appropriate skills - Good answers will be well structured and well balanced

For 5–6 marks

Expect a weakly evidenced range of contrasting impacts linked ot profiles

For 7–8 marks

Expect a well-structured account, which includes:

either well-evidenced range of contrasting impacts linked to profiles (lacking in balance) or a discursive conclusion grounded in geographical concepts and perspectives

For 9–10 marks

Expect both of these traits.

2. (b) Discuss the ways authorities can mitigate the impacts of one or more geophysical hazard [10]
 

AO1 - Applied Knowledge and AO2 - Knowledge and Understanding

The essay should develop detailed knowledge and understanding of a range of approaches to mitigate one or more geophysical hazards. Geophysical hazards can be taken to be volcanic eruption, earthquakes and mass movement hazards

Mitigation refers to pre-event planning and may include fault and geology mapping, hazard mapping e.g. liquefaction risk, landslide risk, land use zoning, early warning systems, seismic design and infrastructure defenses, lava diversion, preparation.

AO3 - Synthesis and Evaluation  - Synthesis required in terms of assessing relative success of approaches in limiting impacts and critical awareness of how the scale of some hazards makes it hard to mitigate impacts

AO4 - Selection, application and use of appropriate skills - Good answers will be well structured and and cover a broad range of approaches

For 5–6 marks

Expect a weakly evidenced range of mitigation approaches

For 7–8 marks

Expect a well-structured account, which includes:

either well-evidenced range of mitigation approaches linked to impacts or a discursive conclusion grounded in geographical concepts and perspectives

For 9–10 marks

Expect both of these traits.

Geophysical 3

(1) (a) Briefly describe the pattern of geophysical hazards shown in the data  [2]                                                                                                             

Earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanoes have remained fairly constant over the time period indicated. (1)

Earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanoes increased from 1980 at around 70 in the year to around 100 a year between 1990 and 2000 (1) before falling to approximately 80  a year between 2000 and 2010 (1)

Mass water movement may include mud flows, these events along with floods have increased dramatically from less than 40 a year in 1980 to above 100 a year by 2010 (1)                                                                                                                    

  1. Describe the relationship shown in the data between total global losses and geophysical hazard events such as earthquakes                                                                                                                                                                 [2+2]  

There appears to be an unclear relationship between geophysical hazards and total global losses (1)     

Total global losses have increased in the time period though geophysical hazards do not appear to have increased dramatically in the same time period. (1)

Big economic shocks cause total global losses to rise (1) occur with several of these caused by major earthquakes such as the two that hit Japan in 1994 and 2011. (1)  

Costs due to geophysical hazards have increase time  from close t0 $25 billion a year to nearly $50 billion (1)           

  1.  Explain why total global losses from hazard events appear to be increasing   [2+2]

Award (1) for correct cause e.g. increased number of hazard events (1) increasing population density of hazard regions (1)  wealth of hazard regions (1) Award (1) for further development e.g. many of the hazards shown in the data have increased in the time period this would inevitably mean high financial cost (1)  with population growth and urbanization there is higher density of population in hazard regions, meaning greater financial impact (1)

2.         (a) Examine the relative importance of hazard magnitude in influencing the severity of risk within communities                                                                                                                                                           [10]

The essay should develop detailed knowledge and understanding of the factors that influence the severity of risk within communities, the essay is likely to develop a number of geophysical hazards.

Factors influencing risk may include:

The scale of the hazard, magnitude, as well as other hazard profile characteristics. The essay will also develop local geographical factors, and secondary hazards. The essay may develop aspects of vulnerability including root scoi0-economic causes and dynamic pressures linked to the ‘crunch’ model

AO3 - Synthesis and Evaluation  - The extent to which magnitude influences should be fully assessed against these other factors

AO4 - Selection, application and use of appropriate skills - Good answers will be well structured and well balanced in argument

For 5–6 marks

Expect a weakly evidenced range of factors influencing risk

For 7–8 marks

Expect a well-structured account, which includes:

either well-evidenced range of factors (lacking in some breadth and balance) or a discursive conclusion grounded in geographical concepts and perspectives

For 9–10 marks

Expect both of these traits.

2.         (b) Discuss the role of technology in terms of managing geophyscial hazards [10]                                                                                                                           

The essay should develop detailed knowledge and understanding of the role of technology in managing geophysical hazard events. Examples of technology should include different stages of management, including mitigation, preparation, response and recovery

Examples of technology roles may include:

Fault ad geology mapping, and hazard simulation software, monitoring devices, 3D tensor imagery, early warning systems, seismic design, the use of GIS and crowd sourced mapping for disaster response, and recovery and search and rescue technologies. Accept other well developed ideas.

AO3 - Synthesis and Evaluation  - Synthesis required in assessing the importance of different technologies

AO4 - Selection, application and use of appropriate skills - Good answers will be well structured and well balanced demonstrating a breadth of technologies

For 5–6 marks

Expect a weakly evidenced range of technologies

For 7–8 marks

Expect a well-structured account, which includes:

either well-evidenced range of technologies (lacking in balance between stages of management) or a discursive conclusion grounded in geographical concepts and perspectives

For 9–10 marks

Expect both of these traits.

  Geophysical 4

Markscheme

(1) (a)   With reference to the framed area only describe the pattern of earthquakes    [2]                                                                                                                                                        

  • Earthquakes are highly clustered in linear pattern that follows the island arc of Indonesia (1)
  • earthquakes tend to be shallower int he north and increase in depth to the north of island arc (1)
  • A definite cluster of  earthquaks with a depth of 150 meters to 350 meters occurs in the north east region of the indicated area (1)
  • Earthquakes vary in servity from 5 -8 on the richter scale (1)

(b) With reference to the framed area only describe the relationship between magnitude and earthquake depth                                                                                                                                                                    [2+2]  

  • Earthquake depth varies as does earthquake magnitude (1)
  • There appears to be a fairly inclonsive pattern of earthquake magnitude and depth (1)
  • The highest magnitude earthquake had a higher depth (1)
  • As a percentage of the deeper earthquakes (>150 meters) there tends to be greater number of high magnitude earthquakes (1)
  • As a percentage of  the more shallow earthquakes (<150 meters) there tends to be fewer number of high magnitude earthquakes (1)                                                                                  

 (c ) Explain the causes of plate movement   [4]                                                                                                                                                                          

Award (1) for suitable cause e.g. slab pull in subduction zones (1) Ridge push at divergent boundaries (1) convection heavier weight and density pulls the movement of plates as a result of gravitational forces  (1), Ocean floor spreading at divergent boundaries reduces the pressure within the mantle causing the formation of magma . Magma rises upwards through the rift pushing the movement of plates apart (1)        

2. (a) Explain how the location of volcanoes influences the explosivity of the eruption [10]

The essay should develop detailed knowledge and understanding of the factors that influence the explosivity of volcanic eruptions linked to location factors and processes at plate boundaries

Students should develop different locations including divergent (constrcutive) and convergent (destructive) boundaries and may develop as hotspots

The differences  the eruptions are as follows:

Explanation should refer to:

Constructive - magma is rising upwards through a relative shallow amount of crust and as a result assimilates less silica rich elements. The result is low silica, effusive, low viscosity lava, that produces gentle sloping ridges and shield volcanoes. They are associated with calm eruptions such as Icelandic eruption, Hawaaian eruptions.

Destructive - magma is rising upwards through greater amounts of crust and as a result it assimilates more silica rich elements and heavier non-silica rich element sink. As a result magma is has high silica content, high viscosity, trapping gas and producing high pressure explosive volcanoes, associated with more violent eruptions such as plinian

Hot spots may be used to develop Hawaain type eruptions linked to mantle plume

Strong and accurate locations required

AO3 - Synthesis and Evaluation  - Clear synthesis to develop sequences processes and volcanic eruptiom

AO4 - Selection, application and use of appropriate skills - Good answers will be well structured and well sequenced

For 5–6 marks

Expect a weakly evidenced range of factors explaining explosivity

For 7–8 marks

Expect a well-structured account, which includes:

either well-evidenced range of factors (lacking in some breadth and location) or a discursive conclusion grounded in geographical concepts and perspectives

For 9–10 marks

Expect both of these traits.

2. (b) Discuss the view that vulnerability to geophysical hazard events depends more on wealth than the magnitude of the hazard [10]

The essay should develop detailed knowledge and understanding of the factors that influences vulnerability. Special attention shuld be given to wealth and magnitude factors at different scales. Other influencing factors should be explored. Geophysical haxards include earthquakes, eruptions and mas movements

Wealth

Wealth impacts the living standards of people in terms of livelihoods, shelter and access to food and safe water and sanitation. This varies across and between countries. Wealth impacts government ability to mitigate  prepare, respond and recover from hazard events. Ultimately this increases vulnerability and risk and reduces community resilience.

Magnitude

Magnitude can be managed effectively through effective mitigation, preparation and responses. Hover high magnitude events can still overwhelm.

Other factors such as dynamic pressures can increase vulnerability. Local geographical factors such as exposure to a hazard, timing of a hazard and physical environment also influence vulnerability

AO3 - Synthesis and Evaluation  - The extent to which wealth and magnitude influence vulnerability should be fully assessed, to include other influencing factors

AO4 - Selection, application and use of appropriate skills - Good answers will be well structured and well balanced in argument

For 5–6 marks

Expect a weakly evidenced range of factors influencing vulnerability

For 7–8 marks

Expect a well-structured account, which includes:

either well-evidenced range of factors (lacking in some breadth and balance) or a discursive conclusion grounded in geographical concepts and perspectives

For 9–10 marks

Expect both of these traits.

2.         (b) Discuss the role of technology in terms of managing geophyscial hazards [10]                                                                                                                           

The essay should develop detailed knowledge and understanding of the role of technology in managing geophysical hazard events. Examples of technology should include different stages of management, including mitigation, preparation, response and recovery

Examples of technology roles may include:

Fault ad geology mapping, and hazard simulation software, monitoring devices, 3D tensor imagery, early warning systems, seismic design, the use of GIS and crowd sourced mapping for disaster response, and recovery and search and rescue technologies. Accept other well developed ideas.

AO3 - Synthesis and Evaluation  - Synthesis required in assessing the importance of different technologies

AO4 - Selection, application and use of appropriate skills - Good answers will be well structured and well balanced demonstrating a breadth of technologies

For 5–6 marks

Expect a weakly evidenced range of technologies

For 7–8 marks

Expect a well-structured account, which includes:

either well-evidenced range of technologies (lacking in balance between stages of management) or a discursive conclusion grounded in geographical concepts and perspectives

For 9–10 marks

Expect both of these traits.

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