Sample Papers - Food and Health

Model Exams for Food and Health

The following page has 4 model papers that can be used as end of unit tests and/or mock exams. They feature authentic exam material and detailed mark schemes for use in class as follow-up or in teaching students on assessment. In addition there are sample feedback approaches provided. The exam material is only for the themes resourced in the site.

Food and Health

Food and Health 1

Markscheme and Feedback

(1) (a) Define HALE    [2]    

Health Adjusted Life Expectancy is a measure of population health that takes into account mortality and morbidity (1). It adjusts overall life expectancy by the amount of time lived in poor health. (1) This is calculated by subtracting from the life expectancy, the number of years lived with disability multiplied by a weighting to represent the severity of that disability. (1)                                                                                                                                  

(b) Briefly describe the pattern of HALE shown in the map   [2+2]

People can expect to live the highest amount of years in relatively good health, between 70-75 years, in economically developed regions such as Canada, Japan Europe and Australia, as well as Chili (1)

Interestingly people can only expect to live between 65-69 healthy years in the US alongside most countries in Eastern Europe and South America (1)

People can expect to live the least number of healthy year in Sub-Saharan Africa it varies here from below 50 years in some countries to 59 years (1)

(c) Explain one advantage and one disadvantage of HALE as a health indicator     [2 +2]       

Award (1) for a correct explanation, Advantage - e.g.  HALE measures quality of health over a life time (1) Easy comparison across genders can be made (1),  (1) mark for developing the idea e.g. This allows a governments to identify the wider health issues within a population and prioritize resources (1) this allows governments to where potential gender based discrimination exists (1) Disadvantage  - e.g. There is a huge range of data (1) Governments do not always have the human resources to collect the data (1). (1) mark for developing the ideas e.g. This can lead to delays, inaccuracies  or gaps in data sets within countries (1)

(d ) Suggest one reason for the variation in HALE in Africa [2]   

Award (1) for a correct reason, e.g. Differences in health care provision (1) Major challenges with specific health problems in specific countries (1) , (1) mark for developing the idea e.g.  Less economically countries have fewer resources to put into health care provision leading to higher incidence of poor health compared to more advanced countries (1) Some countries have high incidence of specific health issues such as HIV or malnutrition, which can dramatically impact HALE compared to other countries (1)

2. (a) Discuss the role of gender in terms of disparities in health and food issues [10]

AO1 - Applied Knowledge and AO2 - Knowledge and Understanding

The following points should be fully developed with knowledge and understanding of the health and food issues relating to gender.

The issues of food are likely to concern factors relating to access to land and health care provision and should also develop disparities. Issue relating to food may develop access to land tenureship, discriminating inheritance laws, polygamous marriages, patriarchy. Issues of successful female development projects, e.g. micro-credit schemes. Good use of exemplification will be present to support ideas.

The issues of health are likely to focus on patterns of disparities, male bias in medication across all nations, lack of health resources for women, maternal care, screening and many more. Again place exemplification should be used to support ideas

AO3 - Synthesis and Evaluation  - Some degree of assessment of factors should be present

AO4 - Selection, application and use of appropriate skills - Good answers will be well structured and well balanced with place exemplification

For 5–6 marks

Expect some weakly evidenced issues

For 7–8 marks

Expect a well-structured account which includes:

either well-evidenced explanation of a range of issues (lacking in breadth and exemplification) or a discursive conclusion  grounded in geographical understanding and application

For 9–10 marks

Expect both of these traits.

2. (b) Examine the success of attempts in one region to tackle food insecurity [10]

The following points should be fully developed with knowledge and of a case study based on efforts to reduce food insecurity. The relative success should be developed alongside an awareness of any shortfalls.

This is likely to be a detailed place example with specific knowledge relating the approaches to tackle food insecurity. It is likely to refer o approaches at a range of scales, including international, national and community projects. There may be reference at the international scale to the SDGs, at the national scale in terms of national programs and community scale in terms of land management projects or community food  programs. The role of NGOs may be developed

AO3 - Synthesis and Evaluation  - Clear assessment of the success should be developed to ensure a  balanced view

AO4 - Selection, application and use of appropriate skills - Good answers will be well structured and well balanced with place exemplification

For 5–6 marks

Expect some weakly evidenced issues

For 7–8 marks

Expect a well-structured account which includes:

either well-evidenced explanation of a range of factors influencing success (lacking in breadth and exemplification) or a discursive conclusion  grounded in geographical understanding and application

For 9–10 marks

Expect both of these traits.

Food and Health 2

(1) (a) State one way how this media headline may be perceived as positive  [1] 

  • It raises awareness of the problem (1)
  • It encourages people to donate so that help can be given to prevent hunger (1)                                                                                                                                                                                                

(b) State one way how this media headline may be perceived as negative [1] 

  • It takes away the dignity of the child (1)
  • It reinforces a negative stereotype of Somalia and even Africa   (1)
  • It may be exaggerating the problem (1)                                                    

(c ) Explain two ways hunger is measured to compare places  [2+2]    

Award (1) for a correct measurement, e.g. Daily calories intake (1) the global hunger index (1) , (1) mark for developing the idea e.g.  daily calorie intake allows for comparison between regions and countries on the quantity of food in daily calorific energy (1)  the global hunger index is a multi component index based on different problems of child nutrition, includes under 5 child malnutrition, stunting and wasting as well as child mortality. Easy comparison can then be made both within and between countries (1)

(d) Explain how two human factors influence variations in food consumption  [2+2]     

Award (1) for a correct reason, e.g. Gender  (1) poverty (1) , (1) mark for developing the idea e.g.  women are often discriminated against due to issue of patriarchy in countries as a consequence they have lower access to food compared to male counterparts (1) Poverty causes differences in the ability to access food. Low income households are more price vulnerable than wealthier households and so have lower access to more nutritious food (1)      

(2)    (a) Discuss the issues affecting one recent famine stricken country [10]

The following points should be fully developed with knowledge and understanding of a recent famine.

Issues is likely to be interpreted in different ways such as causes, spatial extent, effectiveness of responses, the role of the media, international community and aid agencies. A broad range of issues can be developed or more substantial detail of at least two issues.

  • Causes are often complex and based around multiple factors, based on economic, social, political and environmental problems.
  • The spatial extent may develop factors influencing diffusion, again this may follow a clear geographical structure
  • Responses may be explained and evaluated in regard to success
  • The specific roles of different stakeholders may developed and evaluated as part of the examination of issues

AO3 - Synthesis and Evaluation  - Clear examination and assessment of a range of issues affecting the famine

AO4 - Selection, application and use of appropriate skills - Good answers will be well structured and well balanced with place exemplification

For 5–6 marks

Expect some weakly evidenced issues

For 7–8 marks

Expect a well-structured account which includes:

either well-evidenced explanation of a range of issues affecting the famine (lacking in breadth or depth and exemplification) or a discursive conclusion  grounded in geographical understanding and application

For 9–10 marks

Expect both of these traits.

(2)    (b) With the use of examples, examine the geographical factors influencing the incidence and diffusion of contrasting diseases [10]

The following points should be fully developed with knowledge and understanding of  two or more contrasting diseases. It is likely students will develop case study knowledge.

Incidence and diffusion requires a spatial understanding of the origin, extent of spread and speed of spread of the chosen diseases. The student may relate the diffusion to known geographical theories on diffusion,such as relocation and expansion theory. These will be accurately used in reference to the contrasting diseases.

Geographical factors are likely to follow a structure based on economic, social and environmental factors as well as political. The student is likely to develop underlying problems, such a poverty, poor sanitation, malnutrition, environmental exposure due to climate etc. The students may develop more dynamic factors such as urbanization, population densities, migration and and political responses .

AO3 - Synthesis and Evaluation  - Clear assessment of influencing factors

AO4 - Selection, application and use of appropriate skills - Good answers will be well structured and well balanced with accurate use of specific diseases

For 5–6 marks

Expect some weakly evidenced issues

For 7–8 marks

Expect a well-structured account which includes:

either well-evidenced examination of influencing factors (lacking in breadth and accuracy) or a discursive conclusion  grounded in geographical understanding and application

For 9–10 marks

Expect both of these traits.

Food and Health 3

(1) (a) Add to the boxes A and B, the headings Developed Country and Less Developed Country   [2]  

(b) Add to the boxes C and D, the types of disease that would represent the Epidemiological Transition Model  [2] 

                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                    

(c ) Explain how geographic factors influence the rate and diffusion of disease   [2+2 +2]     

Award (1) for a correct factor, e.g. Climate  (1) poverty (1), (1) mark for developing the idea e.g. Climatic factors such a tropical humidity allow for some diseases such a malaria to spread more easily by creating the environmental condition for the mosquito vector  (1) Poverty increases vulnerability due to poor access to safe shelter and sanitation. These conditions expose people to more disease in dirty water which can then easily transfer and spread through a population  (1) 

2. (a) Discuss the role of international organizations in their efforts to combat food insecurity [10]

The following points should be fully developed with knowledge and understanding of the role of international organizations in combating food security. The essay should be clearly a discussion of relevant issues

Students may choose from a range of different international organizations, including such as the World Food Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

It's likely that students will develop case study or place exemplification to demonstrate the roles of these groups. Examples of role include the UN's SDGs and focus on the alleviation of hunger in terms of no one left behind. The importance of rural development projects as well as assessing the importance of food aid in it s different forms.

Discussion will require a degree of assessment of the importance of the role, as well as a degree of evaluation in terms of success. Students may wish to develop issues such as aid dependency and aid as subsidized cash crop. Some student may explore the role of the WTO and the impacts of trade liberalization, perhaps develops examples of how this has undermined the poorest farmers by removing vital subsidies.

 

AO3 - Synthesis and Evaluation  - Clear assessment of the roles of a range of international organizations

AO4 - Selection, application and use of appropriate skills - Good answers will be well structured and well balanced with a range of different international organizations

For 5–6 marks

Expect some weakly evidenced roles

For 7–8 marks

Expect a well-structured account which includes:

either well-evidenced examination of influencing roles (lacking in breadth and discussion) or a discursive conclusion grounded in geographical understanding and application

For 9–10 marks

Expect both of these traits.

2. (b) Examine the relative importance of GMOs in relation to other contemporary approaches to food production [10]

The following points should be fully developed with knowledge and understanding of the importance of GMOs as well as vertical farming in vitro meat

The relative role of GMOs importance should be developed. This is likely to spatially developed and reflect differences in opinion on how important it will be. In some contexts such as in the USA it is very important, in regions like the EU it is less important. Its potential application in developing regions for coping with environmental challenges such as arid environments, salt intrusion may developed. Place exemplification should be developed to support argument.

Other contemporary approaches such as vertical farming and in vitro meat should be developed to provide some balance to the argument. Vertical farming has wide applications, particularly for urban centers., but its also comes with challenges. In vitro meat has potential to resolve many environmental problems but it also faces many challenges.

AO3 - Synthesis and Evaluation  - Clear assessment of  GMO's and balance of argument with reference to other contemporary approaches

AO4 - Selection, application and use of appropriate skills - Good answers will be well structured and well balanced with accurate use of contemporary approaches and place exemplification

For 5–6 marks

Expect some weakly evidenced issues

For 7–8 marks

Expect a well-structured account which includes:

either well-evidenced examination of issues (lacking in breadth and place exemplification) or a discursive conclusion  grounded in geographical understanding and application

For 9–10 marks

Expect both of these traits.

Food and Health 4

(1) (a) Briefly describe the pattern of overweight women shown in the graph   [2] 

  • Countries with the lowest percentage of overweight women (<10%) in the sample include Bolivia, Guatemala and Jordan (1)
  • Countries with highest percentage of overweight women (>40%)include Jordon, Mexico and South Africa (1)
  • 5 of the top 10 countries with highest percentage of overweight women within the sample are South American,Latino (1)
  • With exception to India all of the countries with low percentage of overweight women are Sub-Saharan African countries (1)                                                                                        

(b) Briefly describe the pattern of underweight women shown in the graph    [2] 

  • Countries with the lowest percentage of underweight women (<5%) in the sample include, (1)
  • Countries with highest percentage of underweight women include India (>40%), Niger and Burkina Faso (close to 20%) (1)
  • 5 of the top 10 countries with highest percentage of overweight women within the sample are South American, Latino (1)
  • With exception to India all of the countries with low percentage of overweight women are Sub-Saharan African countries (1)                                                                                           

(c ) Suggest reasons why women’s weight varies so much between India and South Africa    [2+2+2] 

Award (1) for a correct reason, e.g. Inequality  (1) Diets (1) , (1) Gender roles (1) mark for developing the idea e.g.  (1) Greater Inequality within a country might mean that women in low income groups in India struggle to access food. In South Africa food may be more affordable to all socio-economic groups (1) Diets will vary between the countries, for example India diets are often vegetarian, whilst In South Africa diets may be high carbohydrates (1)  (1) within a country like India women may be more socially marginalized and lack proper access to nutritious food (1) 

(2) (a)    Examine the ways local and global awareness advance the management of one contemporary pandemic [10]

The following points should be fully developed with knowledge and understanding of detailed case study of a contemporary pandemic

The essay should be place-specific and develop a balanced account of how local and international awareness advanced management approaches for a contemporary pandemic.

Local and Global awareness may refer to historical tracking of the disease diffusion, awareness of the causes of it spread and diffusion, awareness of vectors of disease, possible pathways, responses to those causes and pathways, the role of different stakeholders, governments at a range of scales, the media, the scientific community, civil society groups etc

 

AO3 - Synthesis and Evaluation  - The role of local and global awareness may be assessed to some degree

AO4 - Selection, application and use of appropriate skills - Good answers will be well structured and well balanced with accurate use  exemplification to support the ideas

For 5–6 marks

Expect some weakly evidenced roles

For 7–8 marks

Expect a well-structured account which includes:

either well-evidenced examination of roles (lacking in breadth and balance) or a discursive conclusion  grounded in geographical understanding and application

For 9–10 marks

Expect both of these traits.

(2) (b) Discuss the reasons why governments may prefer a preventative approach to disease rather than a treatment approach [10]

The following points should be fully developed with knowledge and understanding of the importance of different geographical factors that relate to why governments may choose a preventative approach over treatment

Responses may develop both natural physical factors and human factors that create the conditions for disease to diffuse easily. Certain highly infectious diseases such as malaria and zika virus spread through climate factors and vectors. Water borne diseases like cholera and dysentery spread due to poor sanitation and high density populations. Other diseases such as HIV are highly infectious. These factors mean that the scale of the disease, the ease which it diffuses and the costs of it impacts and treatment are great, leading to the importance of preventative approaches. Other factors relating to wealth and development play a key role, factors such a lack of health services and professionals, the costs of implementing one, the high cost of patented medicines. The lack of a strong educational base and the dominance of cultural/traditional practices and taboos. The lack of adequate nutrition leading to health complications and greater susceptibility.

Responses may develop a critical governance at range of scales from national to global and consider MGOs such as the UN and the WHO. Responses may also suggest a need for treatment in some circumstances. Responses are likely to develop well referenced place examples as evidence

AO3 - Synthesis and Evaluation  - Clear discussion of reasons for government  choosing for preventative approaches

AO4 - Selection, application and use of appropriate skills - Good answers will be well structured and well balanced with accurate use of  reasons for preventative approaches and place exemplification

For 5–6 marks

Expect some weakly evidenced issues

For 7–8 marks

Expect a well-structured account which includes:

either well-evidenced discussion of reasons (lacking in breadth and place exemplification) or a discursive conclusion  grounded in geographical understanding and application

For 9–10 marks

Expect both of these traits.

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