Sample Exam Papers

The following page has model papers for Paper 2 that can be used as end of unit tests and/or mock exams. They feature authentic exam material and detailed mark schemes for use in class as follow-up or in teaching students on assessment. In addition there are sample feedback approaches provided.

Sample Paper 2 (1)

Sample Resource Booklet Paper 2 (1)

Markscheme Sample Paper 2 (1)

Changing population

(1) (a) (i) Briefly describe the pattern of HDI in Africa  [2]

  • HDI is very high in North Africa in particular (1) in particular in Algeria, Tunisia and Libya (1)
  • HDI is low in most Sub-Saharan African countries, especially in east Africa and Central Africa regions (1)
  • HDI is medium in Southern Africa (1), and several other countries including Nigeria and Egypt (1)

(ii) Describe what HDI is [2]

Human Development Index is multi-component measure of development (1) It uses life expectancy, adult literacy rates and Gross Domestic Product to form a score of 100 (1) Accept words to that affect

(b) Describe and explain economic development at the global scale in terms of core periphery patterns  [2+2]  

Describe

Award (1) mark for effective definition e.g. Core - periphery patterns refer to the spatial pattern and relationship between regions of economic power and economic development and regions of lower economic development and influence (1), at the global scale for example core regions include USA and Europe with the periphery including some Asian economies, African and South American  economies (1)

Explain

Award (1) mark for a clear explanation e.g. core regions develop due natural geographical advantage e.g. trade routes or from advances in technology (1) Periphery regions lag behind due to natural geographic disadvantage e.g. remoteness (1). Economic flows transfer from the core to the periphery, in terms of products and foreign Direct Investment (1) periphery regions tend to be used for low-cost labour or resources (1)

(c) Explain one economic push factor relating to voluntary migration [2]

Award (1) mark for a clear explanation e.g. lack of employment opportunity (1) poor health care and education (1). Give an additional (1) mark for developing the explanation e.g. unemployment leads to insecurity and financial hardship which encourages people to choose to migrate (1) poor health care and education means a lack of sufficient care and opportunities, families therefore decide to migrate away (1)

Global Climate Vulnerability and Resilience

(2) (a)    (i) State (1) the lowest level of net radiation and (2) it location [1]

-130 watts per m2

82 degrees north

ii) State (1) the highest level of net radiation and (2) its location  [1]

80watts per m2

0 degrees or the Equator

(b) Explain two reasons for the spatial variation in net radiation   [2+2]  

Award (1) mark for correct reason e.g. The angle of incident is highest at the equator (1) there is more ocean in the southern hemisphere. Award a further (1)  for development e.g. with a high angle of incident solar radiation is more concentrated over the Tropics and with a shorter distance to travel through the atmosphere it provides more insolation compared to the higher latitudes (1) Ocean has a higher specific heat (1) and lower albedo compared to icy land surface and so it retains insolation better 1). The northern hemisphere will have higher albedo and reflect more (1)

(c) Briefly explain two natural causes of changes to the global energy balance [2+2]

Award (1) mark for correct natural cause e.g. Volcanic eruptions (1) Changes to solar output (1) Award a further (1)  for development e.g. Volcanoes release huge amounts of ash and sulfur dioxide which when combined with water vapour absorbs reflects a lot of insolation back into space contains changing the energy balance  (1) Changes occur due to natural solar cycles, one such cycle includes changes in the procession of the earth around the sun. Its orbit changes over time becoming more olyptical  impacting the amount and location of incoming insolation (1)

Global Resource Consumption and Security

(3) (a) (i)  State the level of poverty reduction shown in the graph for China [1]

It fell from from close to 1 billion people in 1981 to under 400 million people in 2011 (1)

(ii) Briefly describe the pattern of poverty reduction shown in the graph [2]

  • China has dramatically reduced it poverty levels reducing it by over half (1)
  • Poverty levels in India and other South Asian countries has risen in the same time period (1)
  • Sub-Saharan Africa has seen an increase in poverty numbers almost doubling from 300 to 600 million (1)
  • Poverty levels have the remained the same in low numbers in Latin America and the Middle East/ North Africa regions (1)

(b) Explain two implications of poverty reduction in China for resource consumption  [2 +2]        

Award (1) mark for correct implication e.g. increased resource consumption through industry (1) Increased consumption of goods (1) Award a further (1) for development e.g.  With improved wealth more industrial growth has occurred increasing China's demand for raw materials  (1) with poverty reduction  millions of Chinese now have grater spending power and so domestic fro goods and services increases impacting on resources (1)

(c) Name and explain how one tool measures and compares patterns of  global consumption [1+2]  

Ecological Footprint (1)

Ecological footprint is a measure of the amount of land and resources an individual, or place consumes in supporting itself (1). It combines the impact of water use, energy use, land area use and material use (1). It's often quantified in number of hectares required to support an individual, which can be increased by the world's population to show how many worlds would required support the individual if everyone consumed that amount resources  (1) 

 (4) Infographic Resource

(a) (i)  State the actual economic contribution of secondary cities  [1] 

40% of World's GDP

(ii)     State the potential future economic contribution of secondary cities  [1]   
   

They could double or triple global GDP (1)

(b) Explain why the data presented in infographic may be described as misleading [2]  

Award (1) mark for correct idea e.g. Future prediction is not certain (1) The source of the data is not made clear (1) Award a further (1) for development e.g. Predicting future trends is always uncertain and open to exaggeration and bias (1)  Lack of sources means the data's validity could be questioned as it prevents the reader from fully scrutinizing it (1)

(c) With reference to the infographic evaluate one opportunity and one challenge that secondary cities face in meeting the SDG Target 11 [3+3]      

Opportunity

Award (1) mark for correct opportunity e.g. Potential future growth in global GDP (1) Support linkages to larger Metropolitan cities  (1) Award up to (2) marks for effective evaluation. e.g. secondary cities have enormous potential to increase global GDP due to their population size and economic linkages (1) With improvement to transport and governance, there is massive potential for growth (1) e.g.  through improving economic flows and transport connection between secondary cities and larger metropolitan regions greater economic growth can be achieved (1). In addition this would increase investment in industries such as tourism, innovation and manufacturing (1)

Challenge

Award (1) mark for correct challenge e.g. Overwhelmed by rapid urbanization (1) Struggling with high rates of poverty (1) Award up to (2) marks for effective evaluation e.g. city authorities struggle to cope with pressures placed on housing, transport and services due to rapid growth (1) Cities lack the investment and their development can lag and struggle to grow  (1)  High rates of poverty places  a burden on city authorities, poor health and political instability hold cities back (1) In addition, the dominance of informal sectors leads to low government budgets and slow growth in investment (1)

 (5)   “For countries experiencing rapid population growth the potential demographic dividend offers more challenges than opportunities”. To what extent do you agree with this statement?  [10] 

Marks must be allocated according to the mark bands for the 10 mark essay

Responses may tackle the question on a regional or national scale.  They should have a clear understanding of the term “demographic dividend” and assess the degree of opportunities and challenges that come with it. This is to be supported with a well-developed case study/studies or developed example(s).

 Possible applied themes (AO2) demonstrating knowledge and understanding (AO1): 

  • Growing active population size and lower birth rates along with lower life expectancy among the older generation provides a great opportunity for future economic growth and rapid leaps in economic development due a fall in dependency
  • A large active population provides for increased production and productivity, an educated skill set, higher government revenues from taxation, resulting in an economic multiplier effect
  • Due to lower dependency rates, households benefit from a lower burden of care
  • This is a time that allows for greater female access to the workplace
  • Challenges may include, inability to capitalize on the active population bulge, slower rates in the fall in fertility rates, loss of traditional values and attitudes, e.g. the new role of women
  • In the short term countries need to cope with a youthful bulge and provide adequate education, health care and employment opportunities. Without they miss the opportunity of the demographic dividend

Good answers may be well-structured (AO4) and may additionally offer a critical evaluation (AO3) which evaluates the relative importance of opportunities and challenges of demographic dividend climate change or other

For 5–6 marks

Expect weakly-evidenced outlining of climate change and/or migration themes.

For 7–8 marks

Expect a well-structured account, which includes:

Either a well evidenced synthesis, which links together several well-evidenced climate change and migration themes from the Guide

Or a critical conclusion (or on-going evaluation) informed by geographical concepts and/or perspectives

For 9–10 marks

Expect both traits

(6) “Water security is the most important issue facing countries today”. To what extent do you agree with this statement?   [10] 

Marks must be allocated according to the mark bands for the 10 mark essay  

Responses may explain that the “importance” of water security depends on the nation in question due to differing levels of for example: development, access to, production and consumption levels and climate.  These are some factors that may determine which resource (water, food or energy) is the most important for security.  For example for hot arid regions and countries with frequent droughts, water and food security may be more of a priority than energy. For other like China for all three may be equally as important

Responses may explain how recent trends in production, consumption, agriculture and industry as well as climate change, may be impacting upon the importance of water security in relation to energy and food security.  Stronger responses may explain how over time climate change is having more of an impact for some regions in terms of their water and food security.  Responses could explain the differing arguments that relate to population and resource consumption using the neo Malthus and anti-Malthus debate.

Good answers may be well-structured (AO4) and may additionally offer a Critical evaluation (AO3) which focuses on the recent past and explicitly addresses the issue of “most important” using national examples.  Responses could evaluate the relative importance of water security in relation to resource security and the possible interactions  between the two.  Another approach might be to evaluate the different time scales over which the importance of water, food and energy may vary in importance.

For 5–6 marks

Expect weakly-evidenced outlining of water and/or resource security themes.

For 7–8 marks

Expect a well-structured account, which includes:

Either a well evidenced synthesis, which links together several well-evidenced resource security themes from the Guide

Or a critical conclusion (or on-going evaluation) informed by geographical concepts and/or perspectives

For 9–10 marks

Expect both traits

Sample Paper 2 (2)

Sample Resource Booklet Paper 2 (2)

Markscheme Sample Paper 2 (2)

Population Change

(1) (a) (i) State one disadvantage of presenting population data in this way [1]
 

Accept any reasonable criticism of the map. Examples include:

  • Choropleth presents generalized data patterns based on a range of data that can hide specific regional spatial patterns within countries (1)
  • Specific regional variation is provided for South Asia and China but not other countries for example African nations (1)

(ii) State one disadvantage of presenting population data in this way [1]

Accept any possible mapping technique. Examples include:

  • Population distribution maps with dots (1)
  • Resized territories based on population ratio to land area (1)

(b) (i) Briefly describe the pattern of population density in South America  [2]

  • Population density is low in the central spine of South America from Amazonian down to Argentina with 0-10 people per square km (1)
  • Population density is highest along the eastern coast, particularly in Brazil with population density higher than 1000 per square km (1)
  • Population density is of medium density in northern nations of South America between 25-75 people per square km (1)

(ii) Suggest two reasons for this distribution in population in South America  [2]

Accept any reasonable response that is linked to the question. Examples include:

  • Remoteness of continental interior make access difficult (1)
  • Extreme Environment, steep relief and forest cover make it challenging to access and live there (1)
  • Climatic challenges such as extreme heat of cold due to altitude restricts population size (1)
  • Proximity to ports and trading routes including shipping encourage core growth (1)

(c) Explain two possible problems caused by the population distribution in South America  [2+2]

Award (1) mark for correct problem e.g. Underdeveloped interior (1) Over populated cities  (1) Award an additional  (1) mark for development. e.g. the interior lacks resource development which influences slower slower economic growth (1) City space and land area becomes over populated, cities struggle to keep pace with housing, services and resource demand hindering economic growth and political stability (1)

Global Climate Vulnerability and Resilience

(2) (a) (i) State the one element of the atmosphere that reflects 17% of incoming radiation [1]
 

Clouds

(ii) State one other atmospheric element that reflects incoming solar radiation [1]

Accept atmospheric gas, also nitrogen, oxygen, ozone, water vapor , dust particles, pollen

(iii) State the atmospheric element responsible for absorbing 19% of the total 23% of incoming solar radiation [1]

Water vapor

(b) State one carbon storage and explain how it is impacted by climate change [1+2]

Award (1) mark for correct carbon storage e.g. oceans, permafrost, vegetation cover. Award a further (2) marks for full development of the explanation, e.g. As temperatures warm ocean temperatures increase, this may lead to a slowing down in its ability to sink and store carbon from the atmosphere (1). In addition current levels of sinked carbon has led to acidification of the ocean causing loss of marine life such as coral health (1) . This in turn reduce the the ability of oceans to absorb more carbon (1)

(c) Explain two possible impacts of climate change on health of people [2+2] 

Award (1) mark for correct impact e.g. northern migration of malaria (1) increased heat stress due to heat waves  (1) Award an additional  (1) mark for development. e.g. as northern latitudes experiencing warming  malaria carrying vectors are migrating further north and south away from their familiar tropical humid territories (1) With increased frequency of droughts and heat waves for example in temperate latitudes such as Europe the elderly will be particularly vulnerable to heat stress and dehydration due to heat waves (1)  

Global Resource Consumption

(3) (a) (i) State the irrigation source that has grown the most  [1]     

Wells   

(ii)     Compare the growth in use of wells and canals  [2]       

The use of wells as irrigation has more than quadrupled from under 700 000 hectares to just less than 4 million hectares (1)  compared to the growth in canals that has increased from 800 000 hectares to 1.6 million hectares (1)

Well irrigation has shown a constant rise in the time period (1) whilst canals increased until 1985 before leveling off (1)

(b) Explain one consequence of India increase in irrigation [2]

Award (1) mark for correct consequence e.g. lowering of water table (1), increased crop yields (1) Award a further (1) marks for full development of the explanation, e.g. with such high withdrawal rates groundwater aquifers can't replenish and so water levels drop increasing salt concentrations (1). technology advances allow for more efficient and reliable water supply that increase crop yields and food security  (1)

(c) State one factor other than food and water that may affect India's future security and explain its link with food and water [1+ 2+2]

Energy (1)

Award (1) for each developed point linked to food and water security, e.g. Energy is required in India to secure agricultural and industrial development (1) Water is critical to India in terms of hydroelectric energy and dam construction (1) Intensive agriculture and irrigation requires energy to drive pumps and water feeds to improve crop yields (1)

Infographic

(4) (a) (i) State the country/region with the highest emissions of greenhouse gases [1]

China (1)

(ii) Suggest one way that the data on emissions may be seen as misleading  [1]

  • It doesn't show per capita data (1)
  • It doesn't show historical contribtuion of CO2 (1)

(b) Suggest two reasons why gas as an energy source is going to increase in its use, whilst other greenhouse gas emitting energies will fall [2+2]

Award (1) mark for correct reason e.g. There are large quantities of gas in shale (1), it's a cleaner energy (1) Award a further (1) mark for full development of the explanation, e.g. energy security is an important issue for countries such as the US who have developed shale gas as an important element of its energy mix (1). gas emits lower amounts of greenhouse gases compared to oil and coal (1)

(c) Suggest two ways the infographic could have been improved to show greater representation of developing nations [2+2]

Award (1) mark for correct idea e.g. Providing historical causes of emissions of both developed and developing countries/regions (1), Clearer regional representation to show views of global citizens (1) Award a further (1) mark for full development of the explanation, e.g. historical emission would show the root causes and show remove fault from developing nations  (1). The global views all relate to mitigation whilst developing nations would have a greter focus on adpatation (1)

Other answers may include:

  • More information on the $100 billion climate finance
  • Information on emissions from Africa - non included and only Brazil in South America

(5) “Adaptation at a range of scales is more important than mitigation in the management of climate change” To what extent do you agree with this statement? [10]

Marks must be allocated according to the mark bands for the 10 mark essay  

Responses may explain that the “importance” of adaptation may depend on the nation in question due to differing levels of for example: exposure to risk and vulnerability to climate change. In addition countries may not require greater focus on mitigation due to their lack of development and level of current emissions.

Responses may explain the importance of adaptation through place examples of climate change sensitive environments at a range of scales. Equally, place examples of industrialized nations may be developed to argue the importance of mitigation. This may vary in scale from international to the local/household. The moral responsibility of developed nations to mitigate as countries with the main responsibility for the cause of climate change may be developed.

Good answers may be well-structured (AO4) and may additionally offer a Critical evaluation (AO3) which focuses on the importance of adaptation or mitigation. Clear assessment and evaluation will be developed. Another approach might be to evaluate the different time scales over which the importance of adaptation and mitigation

For 5–6 marks

Expect weakly-evidenced outlining of adaptation and mitigation

For 7–8 marks

Expect a well-structured account, which includes:

Either a well evidenced synthesis, which links together several well-evidenced adaptations and mitigation approaches based on  themes from the Guide. Or a critical conclusion (or on-going evaluation) informed by geographical concepts and/or perspectives

For 9–10 marks

Expect both traits

(6) “The circular economy offers us the greatest opportunity to achieve sustainable resource consumption”. To what extent do you agree with this statement?  [10]

Marks must be allocated according to the mark bands for the 10 mark essay  

Responses may explain the “importance” of circular economy in the context of sustainable resource consumption and the problems of the current linear model. The extent to which a circular economy can be adopted will vary between countries and will depend on many factors, including government priorities, regulation and economic integration. Place examples should be developed to support the effective use of circular economy at a range of scales. There are challenges to its adoption in terms of the cost effective nature of the current linear model and consumer model and the profit interests of corporations.

The response is likely to develop the advantages of circular economy in terms of sustainable resource use, protection of environment and consumer relationships. It is likely a broad interpretation of sustainable to include, social, economic and environmental aspects will be developed

Good answers may be well-structured (AO4) and may additionally offer a Critical evaluation (AO3) which focuses on the importance of the circular economy over the linear economy. Clear assessment and evaluation will be developed .  Another approach might be to evaluate the different time scales over which the circular economy can be adopted without causing too much economic disruption

For 5–6 marks

Expect weakly-evidenced outlining of circular economy and linear economy

For 7–8 marks

Expect a well-structured account, which includes:

Either a well evidenced synthesis, which links together several well-evidenced circular economy themes

Or a critical conclusion (or on-going evaluation) informed by geographical concepts and/or perspectives

For 9–10 marks

Expect both traits

IB Sample Assessment - Paper 2

IB Sample Assesment  Paper 2

IB Sample Resource Booklet Paper 2

IB Sample Marksheme Paper 2

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