Sample Paper 3 - HL Core

The following page has 2 model papers that can be used as mock exams or for assessment. They feature authentic exam material and detailed mark schemes for use in class as follow-up or in teaching students on assessment. In addition there are sample feedback approaches provided.

 

Paper 3 Sample 1

Markscheme and Feedback

1. (a)  Using examples, explain the spatial patterns and causes of illegal flows     [12]

Marks should be allocated according to the markbands

Credit a broad range of ideas with reference to illegal flows. In terms of illegal good, essays may refer to counterfeit goods, guns and or bio-piracy, Expect candidates to develop patterns of drug movement, illegal financial flows and trafficked people.

Possible spatial patterns will include the movement of good from source regions to western markets for example trafficked people are moved from regions in Africa, Asia and East Europe to Western Europe. Counterfeit good largely come from Asian (China) markets in to developed country markets but it also has a global consumer demand. Drug flows depend o the individual drugs concerned but certainly flow the developed country markets.

Explanation of the patterns will develop the geographical advantages of the source regions, the economic gains from illegal flows as well as the spatial pattern linking to regions of instability and conflict. The essay may develop a nexus approach to explaining the spatial pattern of flows, or drugs, money, counterfeit goods and people.

(AO2) a wider range of knowledge and understanding (AO1) in a well-structured way (AO4). One approach to provide detailed explanation of the at least two illegal flows. This would develop in depth insight into the spatial patterns at a range of scales. Another approach will focus on a broad range of illegal flows and may develop a nexus relationship when explaining these flows.

For 4–6 marks, expect some weakly-evidenced outlining of one or two relevant illegal flow patterns.

For 7–9 marks, expect a structured, evidenced explanation of: either two relevant illegal flows at a range of scales or  two or more illegal flows and the relationships between their spatial pattern

For 10–12 marks, expect both of these traits

1 (b) Examine the ways that global interactions is being rejected by different groups                [16]

Credit all content in line with the markbands. Marks should be allocated according to the markbands. Credit unexpected approaches wherever relevant.

Rejected refers to resistance against global interactions. Global interaction may be economic, social and environmental. Essays may develop a broad range of ideas that may include the role of nation states and civil society groups. Nation states are returning to nationalism, including resource nationalism. Some technologies are allowing for reshoring, trade barriers are increased to protect domestic markets. Civil society groups lobby TNCs to improve corporate responsibility, MGO's are highly criticized by some ant-globalization lobby groups, environmental and social rights are under threat, some groups react in extreme ways to globalization, and tension and conflict develops. Nation states develop right wing policies to combat perceived threats from migration.

Possible applied themes (AO2) include knowledge and understanding (AO1) of:

  • Migration Controls and Rules (4.3.1)
  • Rejection of globalized production (5.3.1)
  • Rise of anti-immigration movements (5.3.1)
  • Local sourcing of goods (5.3.1)
  • Government and militia controls on personal freedoms (5.3.2)
  • National trade restrictions, protectionism and resource nationalism (5.3.2)
  • Threats to global supply chains (piracy) (6.1.1)
  • Profit repatriation, tax avoidance (6.1.2)
  • Renewed nationalism/tribalism (6.1.3)
  • The role of environmental and civil society groups (6.3.1)
  • Reshoring of economic activity (6.3.2)
  • expect themes from the core units (1–3) to be used also

Good answers may synthesize (AO3a) three or more of these themes in a well-structured (AO4) way

Good answers may additionally offer a critical evaluation (AO3b) of the extent to which global interaction is being rejected. It varies between nations (processes of change). Candidates could also evaluate the extent to which all citizens within a nation share the view of rejection e.g. nationalism or corporate production models (power and scale), while for others there is an emergence of right wing or extreme views (differing perspectives). The extent to which all nations are in a position to reject globalization also varies (places and interactions). Another approach might be to evaluate the extent to which some aspects of globalization id rejected while at the same time other are accepted, some countries are in a position to cherry pick, relationships of power at play

For 5–8 marks, expect weakly-evidenced outlining of two or three relevant themes.

For 9–12 marks, expect: either a structured synthesis which links together several well-evidenced themes from the Guide or a critical conclusion (or on-going evaluation) informed by geographical concepts and/or perspectives.

For 13–16 marks, expect both of these traits.

2.  (a) Using examples, analyze how migration brings about changes in culture [16]

Marks should be allocated according to the markbands.

Credit a broad range of ideas relating to migration. It is likely that the essay will develop detailed examples of cultural change relating to migration and diasporas. The essay may develop factors of power relating to cultural imperialism and cultural hybridism.

Cultural change may refer to tangible factors, such as language, architecture, food, music and traditions. This may lead to some analysis to how migration impacts urban areas, architecture, cultural facilities, food outlets and high streets. There may be cultural influence on the media, popular culture, social media.The extent to which migration impacts cultural values and beliefs differ from place to place. Different perspectives may be developed. Migration may not bring about significant changes in values and beliefs of the host country but perhaps more in the diaspora. The rate of cultural change varies withing ethnic groups.

(AO2) a wider range of knowledge and understanding (AO1) in a well-structured way (AO4). One approach to provide detailed analysis of at least two examples of migrants. a full analysis of the ways cultural can change within the migrant community and within the host country will be developed. The extent to which change occurs will vary between the migrant community, in terms of socioeconomic and cultural/ethnic status.

For 4–6 marks, expect some weakly-evidenced outlining of one or two migration influences on culture

For 7–9 marks, expect a structured, evidenced analysis of: either two migrant groups influence on culture, both migrant community and host community or a clear analysis of at least two migrants groups' influence on culture in the context of theories of cultural imperialism and hybridism

For 10–12 marks, expect both of these traits

(b) “The political risks of globalization are far greater than the economic risks” Discuss the extent to which you agree with this statement [16]

Credit all content in line with the markbands. Marks should be allocated according to the markbands. Credit unexpected approaches wherever relevant.

The essay may take a strong position on the statement either accepting it or rejecting it. It is also likely that a more balanced approach will be adopted, with the argument that economic and political risk go hand-in-hand. It is likely the essay will develop geopolitical tensions and factors of importance.

Economic and political risks vary from place to place and at a range of scales. Exposure to risk relates to geopolitical factors, levels of development including superpower status and political structures and governance

They may include, economic dependency, exploitation, neo-liberal dominance, factors relating to power and influence. Economic risk may also refer to access to markets due to protectionism, and disruptions to supply chains, the patterns of illegal flows, changing economic conditions restricting freedoms of TNCs.

Political factors may include, the rise of global superpowers, the dominance and influences of MGOs, and economic blocks and/or unions the growth of nationalism/tribalism, resource nationalism and reshoring for political gain, the rise of anti-immigration movements and its political impact

Possible applied themes (AO2) include knowledge and understanding (AO1) of:

  • Global Superpowers (4.1.1)
  • The role of powerful global groups (4.1.2)
  • Aid dependency (4.2.1)
  • FDI Flows and supply chain risks (4.2.2)
  • The role of MGOs (4.3.1)
  • The availability of natural resources (4.3.3)
  • The rejection of globalized production (5.3.1)
  • The rise of anti-migration groups (5.3.1)
  • National trade restrictions, protectionism and resource nationalism (5.3.2)
  • Hacking and identity theft (6.1.1)
  • Threats to global supply chains (6.1.1)
  • Profit repatriation, tax avoidance (6.1.2)
  • Renewed nationalism/tribalism (6.1.3)
  • The role of environmental and civil society groups (6.3.1)
  • Reshoring of economic activity (6.3.2)
  • expect themes from the core units (1–3) to be used also

Good answers may synthesize (AO3a) three or more of these themes in a well-structured (AO4) way

Good answers may additionally offer a critical evaluation (AO3b) of the extent to which political risks are greater than economic risks (processes of change). Candidates could also evaluate these risk based on factors such economic development , developing countries versus developed countries as well as superpower status (power and scale). There is likely to be (differing perspectives) on characteristics and causes of risk as well as reference to scale in terms of time frames. Risk relates heavily on the relationships that exist both political and economic (places and interactions) and so there will be many evaluative elements to develop. Some essays may critically comment with the counter argument that globalization creates many political and economic opportunities.(perspectives) However this should not affect the balance of the essay.

For 5–8 marks, expect weakly-evidenced outlining of two or three relevant themes.

For 9–12 marks, expect: either a structured synthesis which links together several well-evidenced themes from the Guide or a critical conclusion (or on-going evaluation) informed by geographical concepts and/or perspectives.

For 13–16 marks, expect both of these traits

3. (a) Using examples, examine how globalization increases geopolitical tension   [12]

Marks should be allocated according to the markbands.

Credit a broad range of ideas but essays are likely to develop two detailed examples of geopolitical tension. Essays will tend to develop examples of geopolitical tension related to rising nationalism and/or tribalism. Examine requires students to develop the causes and consequences of geopolitical tension with clear links to globalization and globalized interactions.

Economic security issues may well be developed, this could relate to countries at any stage of development including superpowers. The essay may take more of a regional focus e.g China and South China Sea, The Middle East, Russia and the Arctic.

Political factors such as energy and water security or control of transport routes  could be a key focus. Other examples my be ideological such as Western liberalism and' or the rise of Islamic extremism. essay may develop how some regions pf conflict become hot spots for proxy wars such as the Middle East

The essay may developed two case studies based on the correlation between globalization and renewed nationalism and tribalism

(AO2) a wider range of knowledge and understanding (AO1) in a well-structured way (AO4). One approach maybe to provide a detailed explanation of causes and consequences of geopolitical tensions in two case studies based on the link between globalization and increased nationalism and/or tribalism. Another approach may be develop a more synthesized approach drawing on other factors such as superpower tensions, resource nationalism, renewed protectionism, reshoring, technology threats including hacking and interference.

For 4–6 marks, expect some weakly-evidenced outlining of one or two relevant geopolitical tensions.

For 7–9 marks, expect a structured, evidenced explanation of: either two relevant geopolitical tensions or further development of other tensions impacting on political relations

For 10–12 marks, expect both of these traits

3.  (b) Globalization leads to the formation of a so called ‘global village’. Discuss the ways global interactions cause this.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  [16] Credit all content in line with the markbands. Marks should be allocated according to the markbands. Credit unexpected approaches wherever relevant.

The essay will develop a broad range of global interactions, these are most likely to be based on different players, networks and flows. Technology innovation including transport and communications facilitate it. Political and economic integration at a range of scales enable it. economic flows such as people, finance, goods and services through global supply chains are the consequence.

Differences exist in terms of regions', countries' and individuals' ability to participate. This varies both spatially and in terms of time scale. Core-periphery regions exist where globalization both develops periphery regions and excludes them. Some countries choose to resist for their own economic, political or cultural reasons

Possible applied themes (AO2) include knowledge and understanding (AO1) of:

  • The role of powerful global groups and increased political and economic integration (4.1.2)
  • Global networks and flows(4.2.1)
  • FDI Flows and supply chain (4.2.2)
  • The role of MGOs (4.3.1)
  • The availability of natural resources (4.3.3)
  • Technology innovation (4.3.2)
  • Cultural diversity (5.2.2)
  • expect themes from the core units (1–3) to be used also

Good answers may synthesize (AO3a) three or more of these themes in a well-structured (AO4) way

Good answers may additionally offer a critical evaluation (AO3b) Some countries and regions remain on the periphery of the globalized economy, some people are not welcome in terms of migrants (processes of change), (places and power). The degree and speed of integration varies time and space both between and within countries/regions (scale and interactions) Essays may evaluate or assess the degree of importance of different global interactions (process and change). There is likely to be (differing perspectives) in terms of willingness to integrate and willingness to resist globalization. 

For 5–8 marks, expect weakly-evidenced outlining of two or three relevant themes.

For 9–12 marks, expect: either a structured synthesis which links together several well-evidenced themes from the Guide or a critical conclusion (or on-going evaluation) informed by geographical concepts and/or perspectives.

For 13–16 marks, expect both of these traits

Paper 3 Sample  2

Markscheme and Feedback

(1) (a) Using examples, explain how the physical environment impacts global interactions [12]

Marks should be allocated according to the markbands.

Credit a broad range of ideas but essays are likely to develop two strands to the essay, places that that are either resource rich or resource poor and/pr place at varying scale that experience geographical advantages or disadvantages that influence their global interactions. Expect examples to be developed at a range of scales form local to global.

Expect at least two developed examples evidencing the above. Resource wealth enables countries to generate export revenues and links them to global supply chains. Countries that are resource poor are may struggle to develop global interactions.

Places that have geographical advantages in addition to resources such as temperate climates, deep warm ocean ports, geographical centrality can increase global interactions quickly. Places that are remote and geographically isolated experience lower interactions. Some countries are geographically isolated for political reasons.

(AO2) a wider range of knowledge and understanding (AO1) in a well-structured way (AO4). One approach maybe to provide a detailed explanation of the problems of resource poor nations. Another approach would be to focus on geographical isolation. Expect both pathways in the best responses.

For 4–6 marks, expect some weakly-evidenced outlining of one or two relevant physical environment factors.

For 7–9 marks, expect a structured, evidenced explanation of: either two detailed physical environment factors or a detailed focus on geographical isolation

For 10–12 marks, expect both of these traits

 (b)   Discuss the role of civil society in increasing the ability for people to participate in global interactions [16]

Credit all content in line with the markbands. Marks should be allocated according to the markbands. Credit unexpected approaches wherever relevant.

The essay is likely to develop a broad range of ideas and roles of civil society. This may relate to resistance to environmental, social and economic challenges of global interactions. It may relate to their role in challenging inequality and lack participation. The essay may develop some negative influences such as computer hacking and/or tax avoidance from wealthy individuals.

A good approach to the essay would be address the question through the geographical structure of economic, social, environmental and political.

Possible applied themes (AO2) include knowledge and understanding (AO1) of:

  • The role of Civil Society groups in achieving the MDGs (5.1.1)
  • Their role in achieving gender equality (5.1.1)
  • Their role in helping close the development gap (5.1.1)
  • The role of micro-finance organization (5.1.2)
  • The role fair trade organizations (5.1.2)
  • Rejection of global production (5.3.1)
  • The promotion of local production (5.3.1)
  • The promotion of international mindedness (5.3.3)
  • The use of social media campaigns (5.3.3)
  • Hacking and identity fraud (6.1.1)
  • Raising awareness of environmental and social risk (6.3.1)
  • The use of crowdsouring technologies (6.3.2)
  • expect themes from the core units (1–3) to be used also

Good answers may synthesize (AO3a) three or more of these themes in a well-structured (AO4) way

Good answers may additionally offer a critical evaluation (AO3b) Some civil society groups pose a risk to global interactions (processes of change),There is likely to be (differing perspectives) in terms of how civil society is perceived e.g. by TNCs by governments. Specific actions and relative successes may be developed as evidence (places and power). These actions will vary in terms of their spatial extent  (scale and interactions)  

For 5–8 marks, expect weakly-evidenced outlining of two or three relevant themes.

For 9–12 marks, expect: either a structured synthesis which links together several well-evidenced themes from the Guide or a critical conclusion (or on-going evaluation) informed by geographical concepts and/or perspectives.

For 13–16 marks, expect both of these traits

2. (a) With the use of examples explain how one diaspora influences the diversity and identity of places [12]

Marks should be allocated according to the markbands.

Credit a broad range of ideas but essays are likely to develop examples of places influenced by one diaspora. with reference to a detailed case study. Places in the essay needs to be developed, This can be done by scale using a region or country or could be developed at the global scale using a variety of countries.

Diversity refers to cultural diversity and identity. Student may develop how one diaspora has influenced tangible cultural traits such as language, food, music, architecture in a number of places. This impact is likely to vary from place to place but may be limited due to lack of integration. This can be developed geographically at the local scale. For example, the religious and cultural functions and services in their own city. Essay may develop the impact on cultural values and beliefs within countries. This could be based on multiculturalism or lack of it. Certainly identity becomes multicultural even if there are still different perspectives and attitudes within the community towards it.

(AO2) a wider range of knowledge and understanding (AO1) in a well-structured way (AO4). One approach may be to develop a detailed case study of a diaspora in one place or region. Another approach would be develop the influence of the diaspora at range of scales in different places. Either way the extent of the influence eon diversity needs to be explained throughout.

For 4–6 marks, expect some weakly-evidenced outlining of one or two relevant influences on places' diversity

For 7–9 marks, expect a structured, evidenced explanation of: either two detailed influences on places' diversity or a detailed focus on influence on diversity at a range of scales and places

For 10–12 marks, expect both of these traits

(b) Examine the impact of different global flows on the environment [16]

Credit all content in line with the markbands. Marks should be allocated according to the markbands. Credit unexpected approaches wherever relevant.

The essay will develop a broad range of environmental impacts from global flows. It is likely to focus heavily on (6.2) environmental risks e.g. transport impacts, carbon footprints. Environmental impacts should be developed at a range of scales from local to global.

Essays may develop the impact of resource exploitation and this could be supported with case study material and address impacts at a range of scales.

Essays may develop alternative trading networks such as fair trade, local sourcing and increasing corporate responsibility

Possible applied themes (AO2) include knowledge and understanding (AO1) of:

  • Global flows in goods and materials (4.2.1)
  • Illegal flows (4.2.1)
  • Transport developments over time (4.3.2)
  • Natural resource exploitation (4.3.3)
  • TNCs corporate social responsibility ( 5.1.2)
  • Alternative trading networks, Fairtrade (5.1.2)
  • Local sourcing of food and goods (5.3.1)
  • Environmental risks, trans boundary pollution, localized pollution, shipping, carbon footprints, manufacturing, food production systems (6.2)
  • expect themes from the core units (1–3) to be used also

Good answers may synthesize (AO3a) three or more of these themes in a well-structured (AO4) way. Good answers may additionally offer a critical evaluation (AO3b) Technology improvements, corporate responsibility and alternative trading networks are reducing environmental impact (processes of change), There is likely to be (differing perspectives) from a range of interest groups (places and power). The environmental impacts should be explored from global issues such as climate change to local issues such as shipping lane pollution (scale and interactions) Essays may evaluate or assess the degree of importance of different global flows on the environment (process and change).

For 5–8 marks, expect weakly-evidenced outlining of two or three relevant themes.

For 9–12 marks, expect: either a structured synthesis which links together several well-evidenced themes from the Guide or a critical conclusion (or on-going evaluation) informed by geographical concepts and/or perspectives.

For 13–16 marks, expect both of these traits

3. (a) Using examples examine the role of technology in reducing risks of global interactions [12]

Marks should be allocated according to the markbands.

Expect students to develop detailed examples of how nations manage the threat of hacking and identity fraud through cybersecurity as well as the movement of people through e-passports. Specific specialized knowledge is expected and this is best developed through specific countries or regions.

Essays may develop a range of technology tools for managing the global flows of global interactions.. Global flows may include peoples' movement in business sand tourism, migrants, financial flows, flows in goods and services as security issues relating to transport.

A range of technologies may be developed. Accept innovation in transport, including shipping and aviation, containerization may be developed. However, students are more likely to develop supply chain digital platforms, for tracking and coordinating logistics and supply chains. Refrigerated containerization for fresh foods is possible. Drone technologies has applications for many industry sectors, 3D printing could secure some supply chains. Global communication systems ate being used for the flows in services an finance as well as the movement of people.

(AO2) a wider range of knowledge and understanding (AO1) in a well-structured way (AO4). One approach may be to develop a detailed case study of cybsersecurity and e-passports. Another approach would be develop a broad range of different technologies for the reducing risk of global flows. This may also include cybersecurity and e-passports.

For 4–6 marks, expect some weakly-evidenced outlining of one or two relevant technologies for reducing risk

For 7–9 marks, expect a structured, evidenced explanation of: either two detailed technologies for reducing risk or a broad range of technologies that manage risk of global flows

For 10–12 marks, expect both of these traits

(b) Examine the impact of financial flows on global interactions [16]

Credit all content in line with the markbands. Marks should be allocated according to the markbands. Credit unexpected approaches wherever relevant.

The essay will develop a broad range of financial flows, mainly drawing on FDI, aid, loans debt relief and remittances. These should be careful assessed in regard to their impact on global interactions.

Impact can be taken as increasing global interactions or reducing it e.g. FDI flows integrate countries whilst localized alternative trading networks may modify these flows in favour of local communities.

Innovations in technology and communications enable increased financial flows, e.g remittance transfers, crowdsourcing, but also create challenges and risks through hacking and tax avoidance.

The essay requires clear assessment which should run through the main body of the essay and be left to the conclusion

Possible applied themes (AO2) include knowledge and understanding (AO1) of:

  • The role of powerful global groups and increased political and economic integration (4.1.2)
  • Global networks and flows(4.2.1)
  • Aid, loans, debt relief, remittances ( 4.2.1
  • FDI Flows and supply chain (4.2.2)
  • The role of MGOs and free trade zones (4.3.1)
  • Innovations in technology, communication and data flows ( 5.3.2)
  • Empowering of women, minority groups (5.3.1)
  • Affirmative actions to close the development gap (5.3.1)
  • The work of microfinance organizations and networks (5.3.2)
  • The role of alternative trading networks, fairtrade (5.3.2)
  • Rejection of global production systems in favour of local sourcing (5.3.1)
  • Hacking and identity theft (6.1.1)
  • Profit repatriation and tax avoidance (6.1.2)
  • The availability of natural resources (4.3.3)
  • Technology innovation (4.3.2)
  • Reshoring of economic activity by TNCs (6.3.2)
  • Use of crowdsourcing technologies (6.3.2)
  • expect themes from the core units (1–3) to be used also

Good answers may synthesize (AO3a) three or more of these themes in a well-structured (AO4) way. Good answers may additionally offer a critical evaluation (AO3b) Some aspect of financial flows causes greater risk e.g. hacking, idenity fraud and tax avoidance including capital flight (processes of change), Esays may develope the role of key players including powerful gorups, MGOs, TNCs, nation states (places and power). The degree and speed of impact varies spatially in different places (scale and interactions) . Essays may evaluate or assess the degree of importance of different financial flows (process and change). There is likely to be (differing perspectives)  in terms of development gaps, inequalities, partcipation in term sof minority groups, migrants, women.

For 5–8 marks, expect weakly-evidenced outlining of two or three relevant themes.

For 9–12 marks, expect: either a structured synthesis which links together several well-evidenced themes from the Guide or a critical conclusion (or on-going evaluation) informed by geographical concepts and/or perspectives.

For 13–16 marks, expect both of these traits

All materials on this website are for the exclusive use of teachers and students at subscribing schools for the period of their subscription. Any unauthorised copying or posting of materials on other websites is an infringement of our copyright and could result in your account being blocked and legal action being taken against you.