Participation in Countries at Contrasting Stages of Development

Participation in Countries at Contrasting Stages of Development

This page develops students insight into changing patterns of leisure in three very different detailed examples, including the growth of the event industry, including music festivals, the growth of international tourism in China and challenges of globalization for young people in Bhutan.

Enquiry Question

How is participation in leisure activities changing in countries at different stages of development

Lesson Time: 1 Hour

Lesson Objectives:

  • To describe and explain recent changes in participation in leisure activity in places at contrasting stages of development

Teacher Notes:

Teacher notes to follow

The Growth of Organized Events as Leisure in the UK

Starter Activity - UK Festival Growth - Processes and Places

Watch the video introducing the growth in UK festivals.

Discuss why you think there is growing participation i festivals in the UK

Student Activity - Music Events in the UK - Processes and Places

Study the following graph from statista showing music attendance at concerts and festival and describe the trend in participation

Study the following resource on the growth of festival attendance in the UK

Using the resource write a paragraph on the growth and changing 'festival ecosystem' in the UK

UK Festival Growth

Student Activity - Who's Going to Festivals? - Places and Processes

Study the following infographic and describe the demographic of festival goers.

Worksheet Festivals and Events

Infographic - Festival Goers

Student Activity - The Growth in the UK Events Industry - Processes and Places

Using the following Eventbrite site, infographic and text and answer the questions on the worksheet

Student Activity - Child's Play - Processes and Places

Read the following text adapted from two articles, from the Atlantic and Child in the City

Identify the reasons for reduced child play in the UK

Child's Play

The Growth of Tourism in China

Starter Activity - The Growing Chinese Middle Class - Processes and Places

Study the graph and comment on how the trend shown would influence changing participation in leisure

Student Activity - Long Term Trend in Chinese Tourism - Places and Processes

  1. Study the following graph and describe the growth in domestic  and outbound tourist expenditure
  2. How do you think Chinese expenditure compares with other countries?
  3. Study the second hidden graph and compare Chinese tourist expenditure to other countries

Comparison with other countries

Economist Analysis of Pattern:

Economically, there is no doubt that the surging numbers of Chinese travelers abroad are changing the world. Most conspicuously, they are becoming the main props of luxury brands. McKinsey, a consultancy, says Chinese people account for one-third of global spending on luxury goods. Between 2008 and 2016 they were responsible for three-quarters of the growth in such spending, the firm reckons. Much of this is done outside China, where prices are often lower than at home, but McKinsey says that even when prices are similar, nearly a third of Chinese shoppers still prefer to buy luxury items abroad. According to the UN’s World Tourism Organization, in 2016 they spent a total of more than $260bn, more than double the amount forked out by Americans abroad and about one-fifth of all global spending by international tourists. Only a decade earlier Chinese tourist spending had accounted for a mere 3% of the world’s total.

And this is just the beginning. Less than 10% of Chinese currently hold passports, compared with more than 40% of Americans in 2017. By the end of this decade the number of passport-holders in China is expected to double to 240m, predicts Ctrip, a Chinese travel company.

Student Activity - The Growth of Tourism in China - Processes and Places

Watch the following BBC World Video and answer the questions on the sheet provided

Chinese Tourism Growth Video

Student Activity - The Pattern of Tourism Dependence in China - Patterns and Places

Study the graph and describe the spatial variation in tourism revenue dependency

Read the following description set out by HSBC

In 2016 the south-western province of Guizhou had the nation's highest ratio of tourism revenue to GDP, at 43 per cent, pointing to the highest level of dependence. It was followed by Shanxi, at 33 per cent, and Yunnan, at 32 per cent. Tourism has been an important economic growth-driver for Guizhou, with the province leveraging its rich ethnic heritage to develop related sightseeing activities. The apparent reliance on tourism of Shanxi, China's coal base, is less immediately explicable, although the ancient city of Pingyao is a draw. The province is striving to develop the sector as it aims to reduce its dependence on coal mining.

Elsewhere, tourism is important to the economy of Tibet, which had a tourism revenue-to-GDP ratio of 29 per cent in 2016. The central authorities have spent billions of dollars to improve rail and road connections to the region, led by the inauguration of the Tibet-Qinghai railway in 2008. Visits to Tibet increased almost sixfold between 2007 and 2016, to 23.2m, despite a fall in visitors in 2008 amid local unrest and rioting. Less successful have been efforts to draw tourists to Xinjiang, in the north-west, which has a relatively low dependence on the sector. Security concerns and travel restrictions are likely to thwart the development of local tourism in that region.

Not all interior provinces are dependent on tourism. Ningxia had the lowest tourism revenue-to-GDP ratio in 2016, at 7 per cent, but its integration into the high-speed railway network may help to draw more visitors. A connection between the provincial capital, Yinchuan, and Xi'an (the capital of central Shaanxi province) is due to be completed by 2020. Two other lines are under construction, connecting Yinchuan with Lanzhou (the provincial capital of Gansu) and Qingdao (Shandong). The province also has a promising wine industry, and vineyard tours are available to visitors. The second lowest ratio was recorded by Heilongjiang, at 10 per cent. Cold weather and long traveling distances may deter visitors, although the annual Ice Festival in the provincial capital, Harbin, remains a pull.

Changes in Leisure for Bhutanese Youth

Starter Activity - Bhutan- Key Drivers of Change - Places and Processes

Study the following graph, note down the trend and discuss how it might influence leisure participation of Bhutanese youth

Statistic: Bhutan: Urbanization from 2007 to 2017 | Statista
Find more statistics at Statista

Study the following graph and discuss what impacts this might have leisure activities among the Bhutanese youth


Student Activity  - Pressures on Bhutan's Youth - Processes and Places

Watch the following video on Bhutan and identify the challenges facing the youth in Bhutan.

Student Activity - Growing Youth Delinquency - Processes and Places

Discuss how the following factors are effecting young people and the growing trend in delinquency

  1. Urbanization
  2. Unemployment
  3. Substance abuse

Read the following text adapted from A Bhutan government report on the challenges facing the youth

The challenges confronting the youth are compounding by the day, which is a matter of serious national concern. For instance, as of 2017, about 6,000 substance abusers were registered with Royal Bhutan Police according to Bhutan Narcotic Control Authority. More worryingly, the trend on substance abusers is steadily climbing over the years and more than 90 percent of these are youth.

It has become important and urgent that we all come together and put in our undivided efforts to combat these challenges.  Today, our nation is faced with following youth-related challenges – unemployment; substance abuse; deteriorating human values; deteriorating culture and tradition; crime and theft; suicide; poor sense of common national identity; rural urban migration, and others.

Student Activity - Reasons for youth Delinquency - Places and Processes

Study the following diagram and discuss as a class the causes of increased crime and delinquency among Bhutanese youth

Student Activity - The Impacts of Television on Bhutan - Processes and Places

Use the following Frontline World interactive resource based on the introduction of technology and TV in Bhutan and identify the impacts on the country.

A good way to do this would be to make a class Padlet based on the content of personal profiles within the interactive resource

Student Assessment - Essay Question

Examine the factors that explain how leisure activity is changing in countries at varies stages of economic development (10)

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