Unit 2 - Global Climate Vulnerability and Resilience

Unit 2 - Global Climate Vulnerability and Resilience

This online book is to be used to support students following Unit 2 of the SL/HL core. It includes content and guidance in line with the syllabus on geographic perspectives - global change, as well as assessment support linked to ATL development. It develops, fully researched place examples and case studies. The book also includes a wide range of interactive features, including enbbeded animations, graphs and maps as well as smart quizes and written assignments linked to markbook.

Chapter 4a - The Atmospheric System

The atmosphere can be subdivided into four zones, each with different characteristics and chemical composition. The Atmospheric System is open, with both inputs and outputs of energy. The Energy Budget...

Chapter 4b - Changes in Solar Radiation and Volcanic Activity

This page focuses on both short term in changes in solar output with sunspots and solar flares. It then develops changes in the global energy balance through the Milankovitch Cycles. It also explores...

Chapter 4c - Terrestrial Albedo Changes

Terrestrial albedo changes that occur due to climate change feedbacks are complex. A well documented example is ice cover loss. The impact of ice loss on reduced albedo must be seen in terms of global...

Chapter 4d - Methane Gas Release

Methane is a powerful greenhouse that occurs in the atmosphere mainly due to human activity. Natural causes of methane produce just over 25% of the concentration in the atmosphere but methane stores are...

Chapter 4e - The Enhanced Greenhouse Effect

Human activity has exponentially increased greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere. This has led to the enhanced greenhouse effect (EGE), which is accelerating global warming. The cause of the...

Chapter 5a - Effects on Water Stored as Ice and Sea Levels

Nearly all the world's glaciers and ice sheets are melting. The fastest rate of loss in the Arctic. There is great uncertainty on the rate of future glacial loss but according to satellite data sea level...

Chapter 5b - The Effects on Carbon Stores

Climate change is likely to have a massive impact on the world's carbon cycle. A warming atmosphere will effect carbon stored in ice, oceans and the biosphere. There is evidence that the ocean and the...

Chapter 5c - Effects on Extreme Weather Events

Climate change is understandably having an impact on weather systems. The incidence of extreme weather events takes a toll on human life and activity. The extent to which they are increasing in frequency...

Chapter 5d - Effects on Biomes, Habitats and Animal Migration

Climate change, through warming temperature and changing patterns of rainfall is leading to the environmental degradation of many biomes. Some biomes, such as tundra and boreal forest are less resilient...

CHapter 5e - Effects on Agriculture

Crop yields have increased in size for much of the last century but they do appear to be reaching the limits of cultivation. Climate change threatens agriculture in terms of increasing temperatures, aridity...

Chapter 5f - Impacts on Health and Migration

Changing climates with increased extreme weather events, droughts and flooding will have an impact on human health. Water borne and vector borne disease will increase. Examples, include zika virus and...

Chapter 5g - Impacts Ocean Transport Routes

Climate change is dramatically impacting sea cover in the Arctic. This reduction in ice cover makes ocean transport across the Arctic a real economic opportunity for shipping companies. Crossings will...

Chapter 6a - Disparities in Exposure to Climate Chnage

Disparities in exposure to climate change risk and vulnerability can be seen at a range of spatial scales from the local to the global. Index's show climate change vulnerable and base it on a range of...

Chapter 6b - Contrasting Vulnerability

Countries face different challenges from climate change. This depends on socio-economic factors and environmental stresses as well as exposure to climate change hazards. The vulnerability of a population...

Chapter 6c - Global Geopolitical Efforts

Government-led adaptation and mitigation strategies for global climate change:textThe following image can be clicked on to go to the interactive graphic produced by Carbon Brief. It shows different country...

Chapter 6d - Carbon Emission Offsetting and Trading

Carbon emission offset schemes and trading have a difficult past. Problems, concerning consumer confidence around transparency, effectiveness and longevity cloud their impact. Carbon trading schemes like...

Chapter 6e - Technology and Geo-Engineering

Since the Paris Agreement in 2015, much more emphasis and importance has been placed on technologies and geoengineering solutions to mitigate emissions and adapt to climate change. These technologies...

Chapter 6f - Civil Society and Corporate Strategies

Civil society play a really important role in holding governments to account. Their work is multi-dimensional. It is based on campaigns, lobbying, research and advocacy. Civil society groups, at their...

Chapter 6g - Responses of Non-Governmental Stakeholders in Bangladeshtry

Bangladesh is at the frontline of climate change. It is also home to the world's largest NGO in terms of employed people. Brac has a proven record or running nation-wide development projects and has the...

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