Unit 3 - Global Resource Consumption and Security

Unit 3 - Global Resource Consumption and Security

This online book is to be used to support students following Unit 3 of the SL/HL core. It includes content and guidance in line with the syllabus on geographic perspectives - global change, as well as assessment support linked to ATL development. It develops, fully researched place examples and case studies. The book also includes a wide range of interactive features, including enbbeded animations, graphs and maps as well as smart quizes and written assignments linked to markbook.

Chapter 7a - Poverty Reduction

Poverty has reduced dramatically over the last 40 years at the global scale. This reduction has been driven by rapid economic development in Asia. Meanwhile, poverty in Africa has begun to stagnate and...

Chapter 7b - Trends in Resource Consumption

Resource consumption is rapidly increasing at the global scale, driven by economic development and population growth. In order to develop long term solutions to unsustainable resource consumption, it...

Chapter 7c - Water Trends

Water availability is subject to physical and economic scarcity. The global pattern of water availability does not always match the global pattern of consumption. Most places of the world will experience...

Chapter 7d - Trends in Food

Fertile land is not evenly distributed in the world so that it matches the countries with highest population densities. Some regions lack the economic development to maximise their agricultural potential....

Chapter 7e - Trends in Energy

As many as 2 billion people in the world still rely on wood as their main source of direct energy. However at the global scale fossil fuels dominate direct energy supply. The most developed and industrialised...

Chapter 8a - The Water-Food-Energy Nexus

Water, food and energy are interconnected in what is termed a “nexus” relationship. The water-food-energy nexus is both a model for developing an understanding of resource pressures but also a framework...

Chapter 8b - Climate Change and Resource Security in India and South Africa

India and South Africa are both at different stages of development and also represent hugely contrasting population pressures on resources. The implications of global climate change for the water–food–energy...

Chapter 8c - Waste

Waste is a growing problem worldwide and it is set to increase rapidly with population growth and economic development. Traditional ways of managing waste such as landfill is unsustainable and the lack...

Chapter 9a - Population and Resources: The Pessimistic View

There are divergent views on the relationship between population growth and the pressures it puts on resources through consumption. Pessimistic views include Thomas Malthus's essay, on the Principle of...

Chapter 9b - Population and Resources: The Optimistic View

Optimistic views on population growth can be seen in the work of Ester Boserup, who famously suggested that population pressure on food would lead to innovation. The economist Julian Simon also suggests...

Chapter 9c - Population and Resources: Balanced Views

Balanced views on resource consumption attempt to incorporate conservation and preservation into the model. Capitalism with its emphasis on competition and profit struggles to sustainably manage resources....

Chapter 9d - The Circular Economy

Circular economy is far more than a simple recycling system. It is a radical rethinking of the economy and will involve massive structural changes across all industry sectors to move away from our dependence...

Chapter 9e - The Role of the UN and the SDGs

The United Nations has a long history of frameworks aimed at advancing human development, peace and prosperity, but has achieved mixed success. The Sustainable Development Goals that followed on from...

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