Unit 4 - Power Places and Networks

Unit 4 - Power Places and Networks

This online book is to be used to support students following Unit 4 of the HL core. It includes content and guidance in line with the syllabus on Power Places and Networks as well as assessment support linked to ATL development. It develops, fully researched place examples and case studies. The book also includes a wide range of interactive features, including embedded animations, graphs and maps as well as smart quizzes and written assignments linked to markbook.

Chapter 1a - Globalisation Indices

This page outlines different aspects of globalisation and draws on the processes that increase participation but also reflects on the challenges that globalisation brings. Various indices are used to...

Chapter 1b - Global Superpowers

Global superpowers are what they because of the economic, geopolitical and cultural influence. There are perhaps just three global superpowers. The US is by far the biggest followed bu China and the EU...

Chapter 1c - Powerful Economic Groups

The global economy is influenced by a number of powerful intergovernmental groups that provide analysis, policy frameworks and finance to nation states for improved integration and trade. These powerful...

Chapter 1d - Global Lending Instiutions

The global economy is influenced by a number of powerful intergovernmental lending institutions that provide analysis, policy frameworks and finance to nation states for the improved integration of economies...

Chapter 1e - OPEC

The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries’ (OPEC) has a major influence over energy policies and it can leverage this influence for political gain too. However the group is fragmented with...

Chapter 2a - Global Flows in Materials, Goods and Services

The global economy consists of a global network where industries that extract materials and industries that produce goods and services are interconnected in what is a business ecosystem of operators....

Chapter 2b - Flows in Aid, Loans and Debt Relief

Flows in overseas development aid is dominated by developed countries. Most aid flows as bilateral aid between two countries. Aid is also transferred multinationally though international aid agencies...

Chapter 2c - Flows in Remittances

International remittances tend to travel mostly from high income countries to low income and emerging economies. They are closley linked to the patterns of economic migrants. India and China receive the...

Chapter 2d - Illegal Flows

Illegal flows in finance and counterfeit goods undermines the formal economy and intellectual property rights of TNCs. It also facilitates crime against people. This page first explores the illicit flows...

Chapter 2e - FDI and Outsourcing from TNCs

FDI is the biggest financial flow and has the deepest impact on the global economy. It is controlled by transnational corporations and although more of it now flows to emerging economies, most flows are...

Chapter 2f - Apple and ABInBev

Apple and ABInBev are two TNCs operating in very different sectors with very different investment strategies and global operations. Apple has outsourced operations for all its components and assembly...

Chapter 3a - MGOs and Free Trade Zones

Multi-governmental Organisations include a diverse range of trade blocs, each serving to provide different levels of economic and political integration, generally with the aim of reducing trade barriers...

Chapter 3b - Economic Migration Controls and Rules

Countries adopt policies on migration in line with geographical, political and economic constraints and opportunities they face. Many countries are highly integrated and control migration through policies...

Chapter 3c - Big Data - Small World

The shrinking world which in effect compresses time and distance is most influenced by technology and innovation in data flows and communication. The drivers of this change relates to powers of influence....

Chapter 3d - Transport Developments

Transport has reduced in price and increased in scale and speed. These developments have led to an acceleration in globalisation, helping create an international division of labour. As a result, there...

Chapter 3e - Communication and Infrastructure

Communication and infrastructure have revolutionised the global economy in what the OECD refer to as Globalisation 4.0. Advances in communications has created digital villages and connects people and...

Chapter 3f - Geographical Isolation

Geographical isolation can result from natural barriers to trade, such as mountains, oceans and lack of coastlines. Many of the least globally connected countries are either landlocked or small and/or...

Chapter 3g - Natural Resource Availability

Natural resource wealth may be considered both a blessing and a curse. There is no doubt that history tells us that natural resources can be a stimulus for economic growth even through the exploitation...

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