14: European states in the inter-war years (1918–1939)

This section deals with the domestic developments in Italy, Germany and Spain in the inter-war years. In addition, it is possible to study the domestic developments of one other European country: this gives scope to do a study of the country in which your school is situated, or to provide overlap with, for instance, the Soviet Union which you may be covering for another paper.

Specifically, students need to cover the following:

  • Weimar Germany: the initial crises of the years 1918 - 23, the Golden era of Stresemann and then the rise of Hitler after 1929
  • Hitler's Germany: his consolidation of power 1933 - 34, his economic, social and policies, the nature and organisation of the Nazi state and the extent of resistance to the Nazis
  • Italy: reasons for the rise of Mussolini, his consolidation of power, social, political and economic policies. The nature of the fascist state
  • Spain: political developments from 1918 leading to the outbreak of civil war in 1936. Foreign involvement in the war and the reasons for Franco's victory
  • One case study of another European country

    1. The Weimar Republic (1918 - 1933) (ATL)

    The Weimar Republic (1918 - 1933)Here are some different activities that you can do for this part of Section 14 on Weimar Germany. There is a mixture of starter activities on this page plus source activities,...

    2. Nazi Germany (1933 - 1939) (ATL)

    Here are some different activities that you can do for this part of Section 14 on Weimar Germany. There is a mixture of starter activities on this page plus source activities, summary activities, analytical...

    3. Italy (1918 - 1939) (ATL)

    Mussolini came to power in Italy in 1922. This topic explores the reasons for his rise to power and the impact of his Fascist ideology on Italy up to 1939.Videos and teaching ideas for videos are covered...

    4. Spain (1918 - 1939) (ATL)

    ATL covering the key causes, practices and effects of this war can be found under the Wars topic of Paper 2 here: Case Study: The Spanish Civil WarBelow are extra ATL providing a more in-depth focus on...

    6. European states in the inter-war years: Videos and activities

    This page has some suggestions for documentaries to support this section. Again, we have given suggestions on which sections to show and tasks/questions for students while watching the videos.

    7. European states in the inter-war years: Extra Resources

    There are many resources on this period of history. On these pages you can find a selection of useful websites along with historians' texts that students might find enjoyable to develop their understanding...

    8. European states in the interwar years: graded student examples

    On this page you will find sample essays on this topic, written by students and graded by examiners. We have also suggested activities that can be done with these essays.The two graded essays here are...

    9. European states in the inter-war years: quizzes

    On this page you will find quizzes on this topic to help students learn key facts.For interactive quizzes, which students can do online, go to this page: European states in the interwar years: Interactive...

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