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Particles and moles17 December 2018

I always try to introduce some chemistry here (I don't know much chemistry so it has to be simplifies into atom A combining with atom B etc.) to try and get across the way that scientists originally found... more

Imagingfree15 December 2018

The Imaging option includes an introduction to lenses, images and wavefronts, microscopes and telescopes, fibre optics and medical imaging. If you make an object transparent and shine a laser on it the... more

NMR imagingfree15 December 2018

When a proton is placed in a strong magnetic field it can have two possible energy states. It is as if they are small magnets that can either be aligned with the field or against it. In the image below... more

Ultrasound15 December 2018

The animation below shows what happens when a quartz crystal gets squashedThe green atoms are - oxygen ions and the red are + silicon.The next animation shows what happens if an electric field is applied... more

X-rays15 December 2018

X rays are high energy EM radiation produced by firing electrons at a metal target in a vacuum.In this section we will refer to photons. These are packets of energy, you will learn more about this in... more

Optical fibres15 December 2018

Digital devices communicate with each other with a series of 1's and 0's. This can be achieved by converting the information into an electrical signal comprising of a high potential and a low potential. more

The telescope15 December 2018

This is a simple telescope consisting of 2 convex lenses used to give a magnified view of a distant object. The telescope is said to be in normal adjustment when the final image is at infinity. more

Magnification, the eye and aberrations15 December 2018

What's inside an eyeball? Here are the main partsLight is focused on the retina by the cornea and lens. The focal length of the cornea is fixed, unless you have laser surgery, but the lens has a variable... more

Spherical mirrors and multiple components15 December 2018

We are going to use Paul falstad's ripple tank to model the way waves interact with curved mirrors. The mirrors in this simulation are actually parabolic but it's close enough. Click here for a ready... more

The microscope15 December 2018

A microscope uses two convex lenses to produce a magnified image of a close object. The first lens (the objective) forms a real image in front of the second lens (the eyepiece) which is used like a magnifying... more