2nd law and Carnot cycle

IB Physics: 2nd law and Carnot cycle

The Carnot cycle is the simplest cycle to model in terms of energy changes, It also helps to lead into the bit about engines not being able to be 100% efficient due to the 2nd law.I always introduce the second law using the PhET gas simulation shown below. This helps students to realise that the 2nd law is simply a consequence of fact that matter is made of particles that interact with each other. Having got that idea...


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