Referencing and Citing Sources

Why is it important to reference?

A reference is a way of indicating to the reader, in an orderly form, where information has been obtained. References must be cited because they acknowledge the sources used, and enable the reader to consult the work and verify the data that has been presented.

A reference should provide the information needed to find the original source material.

Students need to understand why and how to cite their sources and make this a habit from the start. This will save time and energy when its time to upload the work.

Acknowledging the work and the ideas of others

IB students must always acknowledge all the sources used in any work submitted for assessment. Give the source details of all the images, text extracts and quotes you refer to in your work, including work or ideas of another artist, person or source that you have paraphrased or summarized. 

Sources include (but are not limited to) images, books and websites. Here are some other sources that should be referenced:

  • participation in practical workshops
  • exhibitions and exhibition catalogues
  • filmed interviews with visual arts professionals
  • lectures and lecture notes
  • audio recordings and soundtracks
  • newspaper articles and magazines
  • online groups and forums
  • feedback and advice from others
  • films, television and other media

    Referencing Images

    When citing images the recommended format is:  Artist / Title / Date / Media / Source

    When citing texts, present in the following order: Author / Title / Publisher / Date / Page or Website

    When citing work you have seen in an exhibition, state this as a primary source. 

    When citing work found on the internet, you must include the artist and the details of the work, not simply the URL where you found it. Include the date you accessed the page, along with the URL in your sources page, not necessarily in text, to keep it clean.

    Format for Referencing an Image

    Artist  Leonardo da Vinci

    Title   Mona Lisa ( La Gioconda)

    Date  1503-17

    Medium Oil on poplar panel

    Size 77 x 53 cm

    Source Musee du Louvre, Paris

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mona_Lisa

    Referencing and citing sources in the each of the assessed Components

    Referencing in the Process Portfolio

    Every image used must be appropriately referenced to acknowledge the title, artist, medium, date (where this information is known) and the source from which the image was retrieved, following the protocol of the referencing style chosen by the school.

    Students own original work is identified and acknowledged in the same way, use a phrase such as “my own work” rather than their name. Include citation details alongside images of their own work, includes media/medium. Declare when an image in the final version of the work is also used in part 3: exhibition assessment task.

     Use in text citation in Process Portfolio screens whenever someone else’s work is quoted or summarized. References can come from many different sources, including books, magazines, journals, newspapers, emails, internet sites and interviews.

    When deliberately appropriating another artist’s work make explicit reference to the appropriation. Another person’s work, ideas or images have influenced then the source must be cited at point of use and must also be included in a list of sources.

    Any found object or image (including those taken from the Internet  must be appropriately referenced.

    A list of sources is required for the process portfolio, and citations are required in text, at point-of-use. this screen will not be included in the screen-count when assessing the process portfolio component.

    Referencing in the Comparative Study

    In text citations for images should include an image label with title, artist, date and medium, and a number that corresponds to the sources page where the full citation ( including source) is included.

    • Cite sources, text and images, at the point of use in CS, and include full reference on Sources page document
    • Teachers should offer guidance about effective referencing
    • HL students cite own work in the same way: "own work", title, medium, size

     All students are required to submit a list of sources for the Comparative Study as a separate document.

    As soon as you know you would like to refer to an image or text, collect the reference information in a Word document. Doing this will save you a lot of time later when you compile your bibliography.

    Referencing in the Exhibition

    When directly referring to another artists work or ideas that have significantly influenced your work, you can cite this briefly in the Exhibition Texts

    Referencing in the Extended Essay

    Referencing is critical is in the Extended Essay. All EEs should include in text citation, fully referenced images and a final bibliography.

    What is an in-text citation?

    A citation is a shorthand method of making a reference in the body of an essay, which is then linked to the full reference at the end of the essay. A citation provides the reader with accurate references so that he or she can locate the source easily. How sources are cited varies with the particular documentation style that has been chosen. Page numbers should normally be given when referencing printed material: in some styles this will be in the citation, in others in the full reference. Once again, it is important to emphasize that there must be consistency of method when citing sources.

    What is a Bibliography?

    A bibliography is an alphabetical list of every source used to research and write the essay. Sources that are not cited in the body of the essay, but were important in informing the approach taken, should be cited in the introduction or in an acknowledgment.

    Find out more about writing a Bibliography, academic referencing styles in Bibliographies, Citation, Referencing

    You may choose the referencing style you prefer or the one used by the school, but it is important to be consistent throughout, see Bibliographies for acceptable documentation styles

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    Comments 13

    Phil Simmonds 13 October 2017 - 08:27

    Size is very important - especially for unfamiliar work. Even with a very well known work like Dali's Persistence of Memory, students are often surprised about how tiny it is. it is also important for students to give sizes for their own work in PP

    Heather McReynolds 14 October 2017 - 18:07

    True, in some pieces it's especially important... but good idea to include size whenever referencing.

    Daryl Bates 26 October 2017 - 04:20

    How does a citation in the EE look of the author's own photo?

    Heather McReynolds 26 October 2017 - 10:42

    Daryl, add "author's own photo" and cite the rest as usual. I would place this at the end of the citation.

    Catherine Tuttle 6 December 2017 - 20:45

    Do students need to cite the image on each slide or is the first time sufficient?

    Heather McReynolds 8 December 2017 - 16:05

    it would seem sufficient to cite it the first time to me, but just to be sure they can include the full citation on sources page with a number ( image #1) and then just label image #1 each time the same image appears...no?

    Juliette Nicolini 8 January 2018 - 07:34

    Hi Heather, Is it all right to use Wikipedia as a source ? I usually advise my students to avoid it… Thank you !

    Heather McReynolds 8 January 2018 - 23:49

    I usually advise to avoid it too, but as an examiner you do see plenty of wikipedia sources... its not unacceptable but doesnt impress either :)

    andrew watson 12 February 2018 - 13:38

    Hi, Heather

    When a student includes a quotation, do they use a footnote or is this not necessary in the CS.

    Thanks

    Andrew

    Heather McReynolds 13 February 2018 - 14:12

    yes, include footnote ;)

    Jonathan Tite 15 March 2018 - 08:29

    Hi Heather, you seem to have conflicting information about referencing the PP.

    On your PP page you say 'Sources should be cited in text and students may include a sources page in addition to required screens'

    but on this page you say 'A list of sources is required for the process portfolio, and citations are required in text, at point-of-use. this screen will not be included in the screen-count when assessing the process portfolio component.

    Could you please clarify this for me as one of my students has an additional sources screen whilst another has just referenced on each page. Which is correct?

    I would be very grateful if you could reply to me as soon as you can as time is of the essence
    Many thanks in advance!

    Heather McReynolds 16 March 2018 - 10:16

    the additional sources screen is a new option, and students wont be penalized for not including it this year as long as citations are done in text. Going forward I would encourage creating a sources screen. Hope this helps, Ill adjust info on PP page

    Jonathan Tite 19 March 2018 - 08:27

    Thank you very much Heather, your reply is most helpful. All the best, Jonathan


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