Individual oral commentary

The individual oral commentary (IOC) is a test on Part 4, a critical study of literature. By the time students take this oral exam SL students will have studied two works from the PLA, and HL students will have studied three works from the PLA. In class much preparation can be done to create confidence and understanding. For example students can be involved in the process of finding important passages from the literary works. Presentations on passages can be given in class. Teachers can draw students' attention to the assessment criteria. We recommend at least one round of mock orals before the final orals are conducted. Unlike the further oral activities, where the best performance counts, in the IOC, the last performance counts.

Both HL and SL students are assessed according to the same criteria. Differentiation between levels only occurs at the stage when grade boundaries are determined by the IB. Marks for the further oral activity are added together with the marks for the individual oral activity. Then they are divided by two. After moderation, grade boundaries are determined by the subject committee. Standard Level boundaries are more lenient than Higher Level boundaries. 

The basics

All of the following points apply to both Higher and Standard Level students:

  • Each student receives a 40-line passage from a work that he or she has studied for Part 4.
  • Students do not know which passage they will receive on this internal exam.
  • Each student has 20 minutes to prepare the passage.
  • Students must then talk about their passage for a minimum of 10 minutes and a maximum of 15 minutes. 
  • All orals must be recorded. Some will be sent to the IB for moderation.
  • After the 10th minute a 2 to 5 minute discussion may take place with the teacher.
  • The IOC counts for 15% of the final grade.
  • Teachers must ensure that there are enough passages to draw from during the oral exam. There should be an equal number of passages from all Part 4 works. The IB has stipulated the following total number of passages for class of these sizes (the following table is taken from the Language A: Language and Literature guide):
Number of students Number of extracts required
1-5 1 per student
6-10 6
11-15 7
16-20 8
21-25 9
26-30 10
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Comments 59

Jason Beavan 28 March 2017 - 05:17

Hi David & Tim,

I have a question I ask on behalf of my DPC. We are currently uploading our internal assessments (IAs) to the IB. On the upload screen named "Sampling - Teacher criteria mark entry" it provides some instructions. Most are quite self-explanatory, but the one I seek advise on reads as follows:

"Please provide marking comments to support the marks that have been awarded. This is particularly important if the uploaded assessment material does not already include any supporting comments from the teacher."

So, my question is--what are appropriate marking comments? What do they look like? The accompanying textbook appears quite small, should the comments be very brief? Bullet points aside criteria?

Many thanks, in advance, as always,


Tim Pruzinsky 28 March 2017 - 11:54

Hi Jason,

I haven't seen the screen you are talking about. We sent our info in the English department to our IB Coordinator and it seemed sufficient for him to upload.

To me, this sounds likes the comments about the IOC. I write them in 3-4 sentences, trying to be as specific and concise about why I gave each mark against each criterion. I do this to try and be helpful to the examiner so they can see my justifications and reward or penalize accordingly. So, go for complete sentences and justify your marks as concisely as you can.


Jason Beavan 29 March 2017 - 04:38

Hi Tim,

Thanks for getting back to me so quickly; appreciate the helpful response.



Gabriela Molina 2 April 2017 - 07:15

Hi Brian. Quick question. When sending samples of ioc with students notes and extract, must they include legend or cover that says it is their own work and not plegiarism?
Is there a format for students to write their notes of the extract?
And when recording do they say their candidate number or personal code?

David McIntyre 2 April 2017 - 12:20

Hi Gabriela,

We have no Brian working on this site. There is me (David), and there is my colleague, Tim.

You will need not submit any annotated preparation for the IOC. You will need to submit the component grades for the IOC, a brief comment on the student's performance, the sample IOC, and the text/extract considered (including 2 guiding questions). That's it.

The IOC should be anonymous, and as far as I know it is no longer required for students to provide any kind of identification that makes it obvious who they are or which school they attend.

Kind regards,


Gabriela Molina 3 April 2017 - 18:35

Thank you so much David!!!

Mariam Hussain 4 April 2017 - 10:31

Hi David and Tim,
It's natural that sometimes GQs are just starters....commentaries are different with the flow...following steps as desired for the IOC....How would this be catered by IB?

Best Regards,

David McIntyre 4 April 2017 - 11:39

Hi Mariam,

Can you clarify what you are asking? What are 'GQs' for example?



Mariam Hussain 4 April 2017 - 13:57

Guiding questions I meant.... how does the examiner mark the sample ioc if they aren't exactly based on guiding questions....

Tim Pruzinsky 5 April 2017 - 00:56

Hi Mariam,

The examiner will always mark the IOC using the assessment criteria. They will use only the assessment criteria it to determine the final mark. When a student delivers an excellent IOC, but does not answer the guiding questions, I think that is okay. However, this is the rare, very rare case.

For example, a guiding question might ask a student to comment on the imagery in the poem. I don't see how a student doesn't do that. And if you thought it was important enough to have it as a guiding question, but the student didn't use it in the IOC, that's what the question and answer time is for.

Some students will use the GQ's extensively, some will use them sparingly, but almost all will deal with them in some manner.


Mariam Hussain 5 April 2017 - 04:58

That's what I'm exactly pointing it at. The last part of ur answer says it all. I have asked one content based and one context related question from each student...

Nathan Mees 12 April 2017 - 06:36


Quick question for you about number of passages and cohort size:

My cohort currently has 70 students (6 separate classes across 3 teachers). As the IB clocks out the number of passages recommended at 26-30 students, should we just add an extra passage per every additional 5 students? This would make a total of 17 passages across the cohort?

Thanks for the help.

David McIntyre 12 April 2017 - 15:15

Hi Nathan,

This is a complex question. You have clearly defined your cohort, but the IB does not in the study guide define cohort. The way you have defined cohort probably makes sense, but I think this would also assume that all 6 classes have studied the same texts. If the classes have studied different texts, it may be better to determine the cohort to be the class, not the year group.

What is obviously essential is academic integrity. The more extracts you include, the less likely it is that students can anticipate what they will confront in the exam.

If you have 70 students and they have all studied the same texts, 17 extracts across this cohort and more or less evenly split across the texts studied seems reasonable. You could include more extracts, but you need, of course, to ensure that each extract gives good opportunity for analysis. There is also a practical issue: Finding, typing, line numbering texts and developing guiding questions takes time (and we are busy people!).

I hope this helps,


Rebecca Miles 25 April 2017 - 11:53

Hi David and Tim,

I am preparing for the IOC an wondered if you could answer a couple of questions.

1. If a student speaks significantly under the ten minutes- say 6 or 7 minutes, can I ask questions up to the fifteen minutes or only for five minutes?
2. Can a student speak over 10 minutes as long as they stop before 15? If this is the case, can I not ask any questions?
3. Can I include titles of poems or specify where excerpts fall in a long poem? I want to include certain cantos from In Memoriam and it would be helpful if I could include canto numbers.
As always, thanks for all your help!

Tim Pruzinsky 25 April 2017 - 12:07

Hi Rebecca,

Let's see if I can answer the questions you have.

1. If a student only speaks for 6-7 minutes, ask them questions for as long as you can and up to 15 minutes if possible. But don't push it if a student clearly has nothing more to say at 12 minutes for example. Ideally, this wouldn't happen and you would not ask a question until after 10 minutes have passed. Unfortunately, very, very occasional circumstances arise where a student just ends at 7 minutes. And there is nothing we can do about that. Ask them questions for as long as they can respond meaningfully up to the time limit of 15 minutes.

2. Yes, they can speak over 10 minutes, but at 12 minutes, you must jump in and start asking questions. Ideally, they wrap up their commentary and conclude sometime between 10 minutes and 11:30.

3. You can include the title of the poem in an IOC (Subject Reports indicate this is okay). As for the canto numbers, this seems like a bit too much although I could understand why you would want to include it. Unfortunately, we can't include act or scene information in Shakespeare (or any play) or chapter numbers in a novel, and so I think this is pushing it. One could, perhaps make the argument that the canto number is part of the poem - like the title - and could be included. I don't think I would fall into that camp.


Jane Hazle 25 April 2017 - 21:48

Hi Tim and David,

1. When selecting passages for the IOC, I assume it is fine to use passages that we have studied closely in class, right? Certainly this would be the case with poetry, but with passages from novels and plays, I want to make sure that I am not unfairly aiding students by putting passages students have analyzed as we studied a text into the pool of potential IOC passages that students randomly select at the start of their IOC. (I hope this is not a silly question--"Of course you can use these passages! What else would you use?--It's just that I haven't seen it directly addressed.)

2. We will have studied 4 text during Part 4 (The Things They Carried, Hamlet, Purple Hibiscus, Seamus Heaney poetry). Is it okay to draw from all 4 of these texts? (My question arises because I know that we are required to study 3 major texts.)

Thank you for your help,

Tim Pruzinsky 26 April 2017 - 00:58

Hi Jane,

It's easiest to answer them in reverse order for me.

1. Three texts only. The IB says three texts for HL in Part 4 and we should be sticking to that requirement (and if they are full DP students, they have so much on their plate already). Drop one.

2. Yes, it's fine to use passages you have studied closely. "Hamlet" is the easiest example to use here. You will have studied in class several of Hamlet's soliloquies. That makes sense. Any class studying "Hamlet" would do that. The hope is that you did not say, "this will come on your IOC" and it will be these exact 30-40 lines. Instead, and I'm guessing I'm right here, you studied the soliloquy which would have been any number of lines and analyzed it closely, but you did so in the context of learning about the text, the characters, themes, and so on and not about how to do an IOC. While you won't pick random IOC passages, it could be the case that you will choose that "Hamlet" extract. That's okay. How could you not? It's essential to the play, that's why you studied it in class, and that's why it will be an extract for the IOC. But, students don't know that and you did not - in class - say "hey, study this for the IOC."

Another example: Students might not have studied an exact passage before in the novel "The Things They Carried," but you did discuss and analyze one of the sections ("On a Rainy River" for example) in a lot of depth as a whole. It's 100% fair game that a student might get a passage from the section "On a Rainy River" then. But you know in class you skipped over "Love" and didn't really talk about it much. Don't select a passage from "Love" then.

Is the "Hamlet" student at an advantage? Perhaps that argument can be made, but I don't think so. You discussed both texts as literature. The teaching and learning was focusing on not acing the IOC, but rather on big understandings of the texts along with how the author's craft works. That's expected; the assessment let's us know about their learning.

Do ask if you have more questions as the IOC can be tricky.


Jane Hazle 26 April 2017 - 14:16


Thank you so much for clarifying both of my questions. I will use 3 of the texts for the IOC (and focus on only 3 next time I teach Part 4--this is my first year...).

One follow up question: could a student do a part 4 written task (1 or 2) using any of the 4 texts as the springboard or would it have to be centered on one of the 3 used for the IOC? We will have studied all of them by the end of May (The Things They Carried, Hamlet, Heaney poetry, Purple Hibscus). I will not use TTTCarried on the IOC, but it has rich potential for writing a written task, so it would be nice to offer to the students if it acceptable within the IB parameters.

Thank you,

Tim Pruzinsky 27 April 2017 - 00:45

Hi Jane,

You are absolutely right that "The Things They Carried" is so rich, but I wouldn't use the O'Brien novel. The IB says 3 texts to be studied in this part of the course and they really want to ensure everyone sticks to that.

And since this is your first time doing this, don't beat yourself up at all! I worry we do this too much to ourselves as professionals; it's understandable, but you are also so much more knowledgeable about what works and what doesn't for the next set of students.


Jane Hazle 16 May 2017 - 14:05

Hi Tim and David,
I have a question from our school coordinator about accommodations and the IOC. How does a school who conducts the IOC in students' junior year handle accommodations? Since families may not decide until the senior year if they plan to certificate., they would not be registered in IBIS.

Thank you,

Tim Pruzinsky 17 May 2017 - 01:26

Hi Jane,

Candidates do not need to be registered to do the IOC. As we no longer say the school name, candidate number, or any other identifying information, they don't need to be in IBIS for purposes of doing the IOC.

However, if you are talking about SEN accommodations like extra time - and I suspect you are - I don't have the exact answer. The student/family/school would need to fill out the necessary paperwork for him or her to be granted the extra time.

And what you are suggesting is that in an American school, that decision to take the IB exam doesn't happen until sometime in Grade 12 and so that's when the paperwork is completed. The issue arises because the IOC is done in grade 11 in some schools and they have not made SEN accommodations yet.

You can either grant the SEN accommodation for the IOC in the belief that the student will get it without the paperwork (which compromises you) or you can decide to not give it to the student (which seems a bit unfair). Your IB Coordinator will need to make that decision - and it's a tough one.


Noah Mass 16 May 2017 - 15:07

Hi Tim and David:

A few things that you've probably answered already, but here they are from me:

When distributing extracts to the students during the exam, would it make the most sense to have an envelope for each student, each one containing all the extracts (I have 10 students, so I was going to do 6 extracts), then have each withdraw their own extract and hand their envelope to the proctor we will have in the room?

Second, about line-numbering: I was going to type out the extracts myself and include line-numbers for each one. Should I be including line-numbers for them or are the students expected to number them themselves during their 20 minutes of planning time?



Tim Pruzinsky 17 May 2017 - 01:18

Hi Noah,

The IOC is such a complicated beast. Let's see if I can answer you questions:

1. Everyone does it a bit differently. What you propose (10 envelopes, 1 for each student with all 6 extracts inside and they select 1) makes complete sense. Go with it.

2. Include line numbers for every 5 lines. It helps if they fill in the rest during the prep time, but the IB says to number them every 5.

Let us know if you have further questions!


Noah Mass 18 May 2017 - 00:48

Thanks a million, my friend. I do have another question, and kind of a weird one: IB doesn't seems to mandate exactly how, physically, the IOC is to take place--that is, whether students are expected to stand as though they were giving a formal presentation or whether they can just sit down next to you or across a table and say things. What do you recommend?

Tim Pruzinsky 18 May 2017 - 01:02

Hi Noah,

Not a weird question at all!

Have them sit. Make them comfortable. I'm not talking pillows and couches here, but it is such a stressful assessment that anything that can and does reduce that anxiety is a good thing in my book.

Think about where they will sit (table and chair) and where you will sit and write notes and then ask questions. Don't make it so comfy that it doesn't feel like a serious academic exercise, but at the same time, don't make the space intimidating.


Noah Mass 23 May 2017 - 04:17

Thanks, again. Back to the best means of distributing extracts: I'm not too happy with the way things worked out on our Mock IOC with my previous strategy of all 6 extracts in an equal number of envelopes; even though I randomized the order of extracts per envelope, a lot of students somehow ended up randomly choosing extracts from the same text. Perhaps 3 envelopes per student with 2 same-text extracts in each one, one of which they would pull out, would make things more equitable? What's your optimal distribution method? I have 10 students and 3 HL texts, so I'm crafting a total of 6 extracts (2 from each) for the IOC.

Tim Pruzinsky 23 May 2017 - 06:33

Hi Noah,

If I have 6 extracts, I create 6 envelopes, one for each extract (rather than 10 envelopes for 10 students with all 6 extracts in it). Students choose an envelope and that usually randomizes things well for me. I can understand that sometimes is doesn't, as is the case with your mock exams. I don't worry too much about it.

As long as I go about it in a way that makes it random, I'm okay with my process. Students selecting - by chance - one text over the other just happens sometimes.


Noah Mass 23 May 2017 - 22:30

So, each student is given a choice of 6 envelopes, he or she chooses one of the 6, and you then set things up again for the next student? I suppose that could work, too. I'll continue to play around with things.

Tim Pruzinsky 24 May 2017 - 00:41

Hi Noah,

That's the gist of it. It's worked for me for a long time. Others do it differently, but this is how I approach it.


Jane Hazle 1 June 2017 - 17:52

Hi Tim,
We are working on passages for the IOCs. Is it good form to include the Act and Scene numbers for passages from drama?

Tim Pruzinsky 1 June 2017 - 22:24

Hi Jane,

Unfortunately, you cannot include that information for drama texts. It must be the passage only. No identifying information can be included.

In other words, if students cannot identify that "x" passage comes from Act 5 scene 2 of "Othello" and that's when he kills Desdemona, well, there are bigger issues at hand.


Dione Smith 1 September 2017 - 13:54

Hi Tim, Just triple checking that 'The Great Gatsby' and 'Heart of Darkness' are appropriate choices for a SL Langlit IOC. Your advice is very much appreciated.

My Part 3 works are 'The Handmaid's Tale' and 'Antigone'.

Thank you ever so much,

Tim Pruzinsky 2 September 2017 - 02:46

Hi Dione,

I love the pairing of "Antigone" and "The Handmaid's Tale." It sounds like such an interesting exploration for the students. As for "Heart of Darkness," it's considered a novella. The PLA states you must study 2 novellas for it to be considered one "work." But this Conrad text is so dense and so complex that I just don't know what they will say. Please contact IB Answers (and let me know the answer too) about it as it's a tricky area in the PLA and one I am not confident giving a definitive answer about as it's too murky for my liking.

Otherwise, the syllabus looks good. You have two places, two time periods, and a two genres.


Dione Smith 2 September 2017 - 07:34

Hi Tim,
Thank you for your fast reply. I agree that HOD is very dense the the novella problem is a tricky one. I will check with IB answers and get back to you asap but am inclined to play it safe and read a second novella as there is still time.

Have a great weekend!

Dione Smith 4 September 2017 - 17:20

I am still waiting for the IB answer but wanted to ask one more thing pretty please. Is 'The Secret Agent' by Conrad considered a novella and is it a good choice to pair with 'Heart of Darkness' for the IOC SL with 'Gatsby' as well? I'll get back to you as soon as I have an answer on HOD standing alone as a works. I am so grateful to have Inthinking and your excellent advice. Have a wonderful day,

Tim Pruzinsky 5 September 2017 - 14:20

Hi Dione,

I think most people consider it a novel. In that case, you could teach it instead of HOD if you want. You also don't want to burden students with having to study more texts than necessary (and having to know more for their IOC).

I'd say go for "The Secret Agent" on its own and drop HOD, but if you really want HOD, wait to see what IB Answers says (and let us know of course).


Dione Smith 15 September 2017 - 11:32

Hello again,
I have had confirmation from the IB that 'Heart of Darkness' paired with 'The Great Gatsby' is acceptable for the IOC at SL. Excellent news and thank you ever so much for your advice. I am eager to read 'The Secret Agent' anyway just for fun and am happy that the students aren't required to cover another text.

Have a wonderful weekend.

Tim Pruzinsky 16 September 2017 - 01:44

Hi Dione,

Excellent news! And many thanks for letting me know this information. It really helps me when advising others.


Will Fordham 19 October 2017 - 11:43

Hi Tim,
Just a quick question, if I may: in selecting a poem for an extract for the IOC, does it matter if the poem is 42 lines long? Or just under 40?

Is there any guidance for whether the text has to be specifically 40 lines?

Sorry to seem like a pedant!


David McIntyre 19 October 2017 - 14:16

Hi Will,

The poem should not exceed 40 lines. Often less than 40 works well.

You may decide - using professional judgment, but breaking prescription - that you do want to include a poem that, with short line length, has, say, 42 lines. I would suggest, however, that if you go this way this is an exception and not your general practice.

Best regards,


Jannine Gammond 24 October 2017 - 10:53

Hi do all of the extracts have to come from all the works studied for Part 4 or can they just come from one text?

David McIntyre 24 October 2017 - 12:18

All the works studied, Jannine.

Best regards,


Will Fordham 25 October 2017 - 11:35

Thanks for your help, David.

Morgan Baxter 25 October 2017 - 14:29

Good morning,
If a student only speaks independently for 7.5 minutes, but makes many insightful points in that time, is it possible for them to score a 6? Can their organization be considered adequate if in those 7.5 minutes they used transition words and structured their response?

David McIntyre 26 October 2017 - 08:11

Hi Morgan,

This is a difficult, and probably impossible, question to answer.

It is, I think, better to think in terms of raw marks, rather than grades.

Potentially, the student can score 5 marks in crit. D. They would be unlikely to score 5 marks in crit. C. In crit. A and B, assuming you have chosen extracts designed to elicit a 10-12 minute oral, the student is highly unlikely to score top marks. However, if they are particularly insightful in the subsequent discussion with you, they must be given 'credit' for this.

Thus, your question, again, is rather difficult to answer. From experience, a student who (only) manages 7.5 minutes in their initial presentation of ideas is unlikely to do particularly well - but you never know.

Kind regards,


Pratik Thapa 2 November 2017 - 05:17

Dear David,

For IOC,

HL students have 3 texts - Macbeth, Sylvia Plath's collection of poem and The Great Gatsby.

Will the students get to choose their extract out of these three texts during their IOC? Or they might just get any extract out of these three?


Tim Pruzinsky 2 November 2017 - 07:17

Hi Pratik,

Students do not get to choose what text their extract comes from. This must be random. So, a student should have an equal chance at all three texts and they should not know until the moment the examination begins.

I hope that clarifies the procedure.


Katherine Adisa 7 November 2017 - 08:06

We are doing the poems of Eavan Boland and I particularly like 'Quarantine' However it is only 20 lines so I am guessing I cannot use it. Is that correct?

Tim Pruzinsky 7 November 2017 - 12:31

Hi Katherine,

There is actually no minimum required for length. Your only guide is this: can a student speak for at least 10 minutes on his or her own without interruption for the IOC? In your professional opinion, if you think this is possible, then you can use the poem. If you think a student will finish at 7 minutes because they have talked about everything, then pick different poems for inclusion in the IOC.


Katherine Adisa 7 November 2017 - 21:59

Perfect, Thank you.

Gordana Medakovic 19 November 2017 - 21:34

Hi Tim and David,
I`ve chosen 12 different extracts from the Part 4 works for my pretty small group of 4 students only (1 passage per student per work, am I right?) I wonder what if, theoretically, the two or three or all of them draw different passages from the same book? Will that be o.k, or they should try another draw> Please, clarify.
Thanks a lot,

Tim Pruzinsky 19 November 2017 - 23:44

Hi Gordana,

I am of the theory that as long as you keep it random, if students select the same passage, then so be it. You have twelve passages for four should be okay and you have completely adhered to the spirit of things (and then some).

However, if you are worried, I would start with all twelve, and then take out passages once they've been selected so it can't be used again. To keep it equal, you would have to take out two other extracts from the other works.

Or, you could just not worry about it and have all twelve as possible. Both are acceptable.


Christina Tonoyan 20 November 2017 - 09:00

Dear David, Tim.
For our IOC we have Maya Angelou's poems and I have 4 students. Do I have to take 4 of her poems or to take extracts from say 1984 too?
If I take only poetry can it be somehow considered not correct? Thank you in advance.

Tim Pruzinsky 20 November 2017 - 11:05

Hi Christina,

It sounds like you have a SL class. That means you've studied 2 texts. Both texts should be possible for the IOC and students should have an equal shot at either (randomly and not knowing which one beforehand).

I hope that clarifies things, but please do let me know if you need more information.


Gordana Medakovic 22 November 2017 - 16:16

Thank you, Tim, I feel reassured now. Did I understand correctly that if they all, quite at random, draw different passages from one book only (Othello, or Gatsby or Blake`s poems), will that be o.k, or they will have to choose again so that their passage is from one of the remaining two books? Sorry for bothering and thanks again.

Tim Pruzinsky 22 November 2017 - 23:22

Hi Gordana,

As long as you gave them an equal shot at all three, and they all randomly ended up choosing the same text, this is okay. I've never seen it happen with a cohort of 10 or more, but I guess anything is possible. Will it look off? Yes. But, as long as you went through the process correctly, can show that you did, and have evidence of other passages that weren't selected, you are okay.


Jannine Gammond 7 December 2017 - 06:27

How long should we spend on Part 4? I was thinking around 14 hours not included the reading of the texts?

Part 4 materials are only used for the IOC correct? So I am assuming they do not need to study them as thoroughly as the Part 3 texts?

David McIntyre 7 December 2017 - 09:16

Hi Jannine,

The course study guide (p13) recommends 30 hours (SL) and 50 hours (HL) for Part 4. It does not specify how you use the time, and you can suppose that much of that time could be eaten up reading if students are studying long 19th century novels.

Part 4 maps onto the IOC; that is correct. However, written tasks may also emerge from part 4 study. Moreover, the skills are transferable; much or most of the course has aspects of close reading. Finally, students can become very agitated by the IOC, even the stoics in your class. Thus, you need to find a balance that teaches the students the skills of the IOC, puts them at ease, and provides understanding of the texts studied. It remains the case, however, that the IOC is only one component of a much larger course.

Best regards,


Jannine Gammond 7 December 2017 - 10:00

Hi David,

Sorry I phrased that incorrectly; I meant 14 hours per 'text', so that works out about right.

Our lessons are 55 minutes so for planning reasons I was going to dedicate around 18 lessons per text.

Thank you!

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